thank you we're trusting our lives to your answers oh thanks what you filming me filming you you can bury me so you hold this oh I could hold the keyboard hair you trust me control-alt-delete you go alright so my hands near the wheel of my foot yeah we need one that's the second car we picked yeah I think we nixed one Oh much obliged all right that's the finish line Wow manual what's the high as we hit 45 point one use the point where you can actually talk to the car and have a say just a drive to her you could do that to ass want to make it that easy thanks a lot yeah
Translator: Jon Dujaka Reviewer: Helena Bedalli Kur isha i vogël, I adhuroja makinat. Kur mbusha 18, E humba shokun tim të ngushtë në një aksident rrugor. Kështu. Pastaj vendosa t'ia dedikoj jeten time në shpëtimin e një milion njerëzve çdo vit. Nuk e kam arritur këtë gjë, kështuqë ky është vetëm një raport mbi progresin, por jam këtu t'iu tregoj pak për makinat vetë-vozitëse. E pashë konceptin në fillim në Sfidën e Madhe DARPA ku qeveria e Sh.B.A e lëshoi një shpërblim për një makinë vetë-vozitëse që mund të navigonte në shkretëtirë. Edhe pse aty ishin njëqind skuadra, ato makina nuk shkuan askund. Kështu që ne në Stanford vendosëm që të ndërtonim një makinë vetë-vozitëse ndryshe. Ne ndërtuam trupin dhe programin. Ne e bëmë që të mësonte nga ne, dhe e lëshuam të lirë në shkretëtirë. Dhe a paimagjinueshmja ndodhi: u bë makina e parë që ishte kthyer ndonjëherë nga një Sfidë e Madhe DARPA — duke i fituar Stanford-it 2 milion dollarë. Por ende nuk kishte shpëtuar asnjë jetë. Prej asaj, puna jonë u fokusua në ndërtimin e makinave që mund të vozisin kudo ku vetëm — çdo rrugë në Kaliforni. Ne kemi vozitur 225,000 kilometra. Makinat tona kanë sensor me anë të së cilëve mund të shikojnë në mënyrë magjike çdo gjë për rreth tyre dhe të vendosin në çdo aspekt të vozitjes. Është mekanizmi perfekt i vozitjes. Kemi vozitur në qytete, si në San Francisco këtu. Kemi vozitur nga San Francisco në Los Angeles në Autostradën 1. Kemi hasur në vrapues autostrada të rënduara nga trafiku, kabina për pagesa, dhe e gjitha kjo është pa një njeri në timon; makina vozit vet. Në fakt, përderisa vozitëm 225,000 kilometra, njerëzit nuk e vërejtën. Rrugë malore, ditë dhe natë, si dhe rrugën zigzage Lombard në San Francisco. (Të qeshura) Ndonjëherë makinat tona çmenden, dhe bëjnë akrobacione të vogla. (Video) Njeri: Oh Zoti i Madh Çfarë? Njeriu i dytë: Po vozitë vetë. Sebastian Thrun: Unë nuk mund ta ringjall shokun tim Harold, por unë mund të bëj diçka për të gjithë njerëzit që kanë vdekur. A e dini se aksidentet trafikore janë shkaku numër një për vdekjen e të rinjve ? Dhe a e kuptoni se gati të gjitha këto janë pasoje e gabimeve njerëzore e jo gabimeve mekanike, prandaj mund të parandalohen nga makinat? A e kuptoni se ne mund të ndryshojmë kapacitetin e aurostradave dy ose tre herë nëse ne nuk do të mbështetëshim në precizitetin e njeriut për të qëndruar në korsi — përmirësimin e pozicionit të trupit dhe prandaj të vozisim pak më afër së bashku në korsi pak më të ngushta, dhe ti largohemi bllokimit të trafikut në autostrada ? A e kupton se ti, përdorues i TED-it, shpenzon një mesatare prej 52 minutave në ditë në trafik, duke e shpenzuar kohën tënde në udhëtimin tënd të përditshëm? Ti mund ta rifitosh këtë kohë. Kjo është katër miliard orë të shpenzuara vetëm në këtë shtet ( Kaliforni ). Dhe është 9 miliard litra benzinë të shpenzuara. Un mendoj se është një vizion këtu, një teknologji e re, dhe po shpresoj se do të vijë një kohë kur gjeneratat pasardhëse do shikojnë pas dhe do të thonë se sa qesharake ishte që njerëzit po i vozisnin makinat. Faleminderit. (Duartrokitje)
you so here we are in the heart of London a world capital and there's a lot that's very good about that let's think it's a cultural powerhouse it's an all-night party venue realistically I don't get to see much of those two at the moment cuz I have a two year old but I understand that other people are enjoying them and of course it's the economic heart of Britain think of all those talented people flocking to London every year looking for work some of them head up the road to Soho trying to get into the creative industries some of them head over to old Street trying to get into tech some of them hang around here trying to get into politics and there are plenty who want to follow the money into law and property and finance but there's a side to London that's less talked about and it's the role that this city plays in fueling corruption in some of the poorest countries in the world and the role of some of our bankers some of our lawyers and some of our property market in helping that to happen London is headquarters to HSBC which was recently fined nearly two billion dollars by the US authorities for repeatedly accepting cash that had been laundered by Mexican drug cartels during the time that HSBC was accepting this dirty cash thirty five thousand people died at the hands of the drug gangs in Mexico London is also home to branches of NatWest Royal Bank of Scotland Barclays UBS and HSBC again which accepted millions of pounds from corrupt Nigerian state governors who were paying in the bribes that they've been accepting London is also home to the High Court which in a recent case involving a corrupt billion dollar Nigerian oil deal decided that one of the middlemen was entitled to a ten percent cut without questioning whether the British Court should be dividing up the proceeds of corruption in this way and London is also home to a property market that's very popular with the rolls corrupt now most people think of corruption is something that happens somewhere else it's over there and it's nothing to do with us but what I'm going to talk about is the role of some actors right here in London in helping some of it to happen now I don't know about you but this makes me feel rather sad and angry I love London and there's so much that's good about it but this all makes me feel rather ashamed I work for Global Witness a campaigning organisation that investigates the deep links between natural resources conflict corruption and environmental devastation we spend half our time as investigative journalists unpicking the dirty deals and following the money to those responsible then we use our findings to campaign for change my colleague Charmian Gooch one of our co-founders won this year's TED Prize Ted wanted to recognize our campaign that's calling for an end to the globally accepted practice of allowing companies to incorporate whilst keeping their real owners hidden this is something that allows all manner of corrupt deals tax evading deals drug trafficking people trafficking you name it serious horrible crimes usually move the money using a company with hidden owners which is why we're very pleased that the UK has just said it will bring in a register of the real owners of companies we've also campaigned for 15 years for new laws that would require oil and mining companies to disclose what they pay to governments now this is on the basis that the people of Nigeria might stand a chance of holding their government to account for the missing oil billions if they knew how much should have been paid in in the first place that we've now won new laws in Washington and in Brussels that would make this happen but some of the oil companies are trying to gut these laws I wonder what they're so worried is going to come out if they have to reveal their payments we'll come back to that in a moment because I should perhaps first explain how on earth I got here so I started out as a journalist thinking that that would be my way to change the world but I soon became rather frustrated just writing the stories one after the other and so I became a campaigner and I campaigned for several years for controls on the arms trade but I became rather down dealing only with the supply of horrible hardware and not the economic injustice –is that so often lead to the demand for it and so I became an aid worker and I found myself in Sierra Leone just at the end of a civil war which had been going on for ten years and that is when I started to understand the resource curse firsthand Sierra Leone is fabulously wealthy in natural resources diamonds goals bauxite titanium but the diamonds had just filled a civil war and the people were some of the poorest on earth in one of the main diamond towns I went to there was just one main road through the middle of the town and half of the shops on it were diamond dealerships they weren't selling diamonds they were they were packed to the ceilings with with TVs and stereos and generators and bicycles which they were using to pay the local diggers who were bringing in diamonds worth many times more the other half of the road was aid agency compounds one after the other and apart from a few stalls on the street that was it for economic life in this town now there's something going really wrong when a country's natural resource wealth is not only failing to benefit ordinary people but is destabilizing politics and fueling war the aid work I was involved in was wonderful and seemed to be much needed we were helping to reunite displaced children with their families we were supporting the reintegration into their communities of girls who'd been abducted and raped by the rebels and forced to be their wives and we were raising funds for an amputee football team who played the most extraordinary football on crutches but as long as the majority of those natural resource revenues continued to make their way mostly into companies coffers and government officials offshore private bank accounts then I felt like I was pouring water into a leaky bucket in short the problem was much closer to home and so now here I find myself back here in London my city this is one of the foremost Butler's to the world's corrupt now you're right there is plenty of corrupt money in Dubai and Singapore – but this one's nice this is the city I live in this one's my city full of bank accounts stuffed with corrupt cash my city full of lawyers and accountants and trusting company service providers who spend their days setting up shell companies whose only purpose is to move money from one place to another let's look at that financial sector a couple of years ago our banking regulator finally admitted that three-quarters of British banks weren't doing enough to establish what whether the source of the funds that their customers were depositing which is basically an acknowledgment that the UK is wide open to corrupt funds now having corrupt funds in our bank accounts here he's not just a side effect of that corruption that's happening over there somewhere it's precisely what allows it to happen it's what allows the dictator to shore up his undemocratic power to keep funds off budget and out of sight of his opponents and to line up a bolt hole for when it all goes wrong there is simply no point in stealing billions of dollars if you have to keep it under the bed doesn't fit for starters but you want to go and put it somewhere where you can enjoy it as a Nigerian anti-corruption investigator put it to us if you're going to fly a plane you don't take off until you know where you're going to land we know Ukrainian activists who are hopping mad that their country's fledgling democracy has been repeatedly undermined by a trail of corruption that leads straight back here to London 23 million dollars in funds associated with the regime that's just gone has now been frozen in the UK too late we'd say and it turns out that the ex-presidents palace was part owned by a UK shell company so that's the finance sector let's have a quick look at property now London's booming property market isn't particularly popular with our own generation rents who can't afford to find somewhere to live but it's very popular with international hot money looking for somewhere to hang out for a while the Financial Times recently did an analysis of Land Registry data to show that over a 13 year period to 2012 40,000 properties in London alone were bought using offshore companies that basically means no one knows who they – now the tax fiddling reasons for using an offshore company to buy your house are increasingly recognized but corrupt money likes property – one of those 40,000 houses would have been the 10 million pound house up in Hampstead owned by one of Colonel Gaddafi's sons through a British Virgin Islands company and another for properties in North London were owned again through a British Virgin Islands company by one of those corrupt Nigerian state governors I mentioned earlier who paid for them using bribes and the proceeds of ripping off his people the people who voted for him you usually only find out about properties like this once the person involved is prosecuted or pushed for pat pushed from power which doesn't happen often enough so that's the property market and then and then there's our ancient and venerable legal system let me tell you a story about that so look imagine that you have plans to rob a bank imagine that you come to an arrangement with one of your accomplices as to how much he's going to be paid imagine that your accomplice then takes you to court to claim his fee and the court makes a decision as to how much he's entitled to without referring to the fact that a bank has just been robbed that is basically what's just happened here in the High Court in London except that the man involved hadn't been robbing a bank he'd been robbing the people of Nigeria of 1.1 billion dollars and this is how it happened to oil companies shell and Italy's any bought a lucrative offshore Nigerian oil block for 1.1 billion dollars they paid this money to the governments of Nigeria which then made a subsequent payment for an identical amount to a company called Malibu oil and gas which was secretly owned by the former Nigerian oil minister he had awarded his own company whilst he was in office this concession and was now cashing in on his corruption now Sharon any point out that they paid their money to the government of Nigeria but court documents show that their representatives met the former oil minister who's called Danna Teti on a number of occasions while the negotiations were going on and that they knew he was representing the company Malibu when the 1.1 billion reached Malibu 800 million of it was immediately wired on to another five companies with hidden owners so nobody knows who's benefited it certainly isn't the Nigerian people so we can already see two things from this how corruption can happen behind companies with hidden owners and why those new laws that I mentioned earlier which would require oil and mining companies to disclose their payments would have been a really good idea in this case so that the Nigerian people could see the deals being done on their behalf interestingly shell is one of the oil companies lobbying against those laws anyway so when the middleman took Malibu to court to claim his fee it all came out the court made a finding of fact that's the oil Minister was the real owner of this company which is essentially an acknowledgment that this is a seriously dodgy deal and yet the court awarded the middleman his cut he got about 110 million dollars we find this extraordinary even more extraordinary is that the CPS and other authorities have not frozen this payments in order to stop him getting it its deals like this which help to explain why billions of dollars of Nigerian oil revenue still go missing every year it's deals like this which help to explain why a larger proportion of Nigerian people live in poverty than before the oil money started to flow the UK meanwhile gives 275 million pounds a year of development aid to Nigeria I am not suggesting that we stop the aid I've seen for myself what good aid can do I am suggesting though that we stop fueling the corruption that undermines that aid and prevents oil revenues reaching ordinary people I am suggesting that we don't let our courts legitimize corrupt deals I am suggesting that we stop our banks accepting corrupt money and I am suggesting that perhaps it's time for the Land Registry to record the real owners of properties and not just the offshore companies that they're hiding behind I am basically suggesting that we try and make London a place where those who want to go and work in finance and property and law can do so if they choose without helping to fuel the corruption that keeps so many people still living in poverty thank you
you so for the first nine years of my career I spent time in the field of design designing high-tech products and services but I got to a point where I started to feel that I was missing something and I began to ask myself why I was making the things that I was making I didn't have an answer so I wanted to spend some time away from my industry and I entered the field of Mart I spent the next four years of my life at both the Rhode Island School of Design and Brown University conducting research on what it means to make something how it works as a creative process and why it matters to our lives and to do the research I spend as much time as I possibly could make using my hands to make objects with clay metal wood plastic all sorts of different materials and I also use my whole body to make performances by dancing and acting and as I did this I kept seeing the same pattern happened over and over and over again the pattern was as follows the way I think often prevents my ability to create new meaning and value for my interaction with others and I only realize what that limiting way of thinking was in hindsight make it an example so one day I was in the woodshop and I was making a piece of artwork with wood and I was using a Japanese hands at the moment and this is a picture of the saw I was using and this is how it sounded like so I was sawing away and all of a sudden a carpenter standing all the way at the other end of the shop starts yelling at me he's like hey you listen to the wood and I was like excuse me he starts walking towards me he says you have to understand the wood is very honest if you're willing to listen it'll tell you how you're doing I was like I have no idea what you're talking about he says watch this he takes the wood I've been sawing unclamp sit lowers it down rique Lamson says do it again and I do it again and this is the how the sound changed once again this is how it previously sounds the problem was that I plant the wood too high so every time I would saw it would wobble a bit and that was creating a lot of rumbling noise but I swear to God I had heard that sound but I didn't I thought it was just a generic sound of sign I didn't find it particularly meaningful or valuable but in hindsight of course this was obvious so obvious in fact I couldn't understand why I hadn't thought of it in the first place so incidents like this was happening over and over again and it was easy to brush this off as kind of being mundane and hindsight being 20/20 is not a new idea but I intuitively felt that there was something more to this than meets the eye but I couldn't quite articulate it that is until I realized that this wasn't actually an echo from my past you see more than 10 years ago at a close friend who was suffering from bipolar depression and at the time I really wanted to help her so I started off by reading everything there was about depression I read books magazines articles you name it I read them all and eventually got to a psychiatrist looking for some advice and she said slim if you want to help your friend but most you can do is try and empathize with her and I was like how do you do that and she said well the next time she gets depressed sit down with her and listen to her very closely and if you think you can understand how she's feeling and why express that back to her and if that expression resonates with her she'll feel understood and that'll make her feel better just sounded simple enough but then I tried it and I quickly realized that this was a lot more difficult than I thought because the whole time I was trying to listen to her she kept yelling screaming and bawling telling me that I did not understand so what was I supposed to do I kept revised the story I was telling her over and over and over again hoping I would eventually get it right but I couldn't nearly half an hour I'd passed by and I was just sitting there with all my energy drained unable to figure out what it was that I was missing but then something occurred to me it occurred to me that maybe something I had said to her earlier in the day had something to do with her feeling the way she was feeling now so I told her that and like magic she stopped yelling and screaming as she sat there sobbing you see what I realized at that moment was that everything I've been telling her up to that point was framed in such a way there was all her fault and I had nothing to do it I thought of her as a problem to be solved and I myself as a problem solver thinking that a problem solver could not possibly be a part of the problem but of course in hindsight I actually started off thinking I already knew the answer and the answer was so simple she just had to cheer up I thought if I can only logically convince her to accept this wonderfully simple solution that she would snap out of a depression but of course I misunderstood the problem to the solution to the problem wasn't a matter of selling her on my ideas it was coming to realize my own assumptions my implicit role playing my unawareness of my own prejudice if anybody had to snap out of it it was me and once I realized this all I had to do was express that story back to her sincerely a story so completely unexpected yet in hindsight so simple so obvious and even logical but I couldn't understand why I hadn't thought of it in the first place you see reflecting on that incident what I've come to realize is that the process it takes to empathize with another person mirrors the creative process now why do I say that in the beginning of the story I just told I started off not empathizing with my friend which is to say that I felt separate from her I saw her as an as an as someone I was looking at or experiencing objectively from a distance and with no bias but in and I empathize with her which is to say that I felt as if the boundary between her and I had blurred I had a subjective experience enough for me to feel a sense of connection of oneness now if empathy is a word we invented to explain how we can empathize with somebody or go from not empathizing to empathizing I want to give a name to the process it takes for us to go from not empathizing to empathizing and I want to call it realizing empathy now how then does empathy realize well sometimes I realize involuntarily I'm sure you've all had an experience where you're watching an actor or a singer and can you instantly feel that sense of connection but maybe you've also had an experience where you were in the shower and you all of a sudden went oh that's what mom was talking about that's also an example of empathy realizing and voluntarily except we have another name for that situation which we call the lightbulb moment but that's a key signature of a creative process a technical term being having an insight that's precisely what happened between me and my friend but now what got me to that insight what did I have to do to get that insight well many things but first of all I had to engage my friend in a conversation in other words the conversation was required before that lightbulb could go off and in during that conversation what else happened because I'm thinking of all the different things that happened during the conversation and there's many many different things that happened but if there's one thing I want to highlight today it's that I learned the choice to become honest and now let me explain what I mean by learning the choice to be honest because it's not the same thing as not lying now remember the story of wood that I think the sound of sawing was insignificant of course I did remember the story of my friend that I know about the event that had happened earlier the day of course I did but did I ever outwardly acknowledge Express or otherwise act on that honesty no in fact I ignored it I brushed it off I was not being honest but that's not because I had the intention to deceive it's because I didn't have a choice after all I didn't see a value in being honest about that why should I be honest about that particular thing in that particular moment if I don't see the value what would be the point it's like sending a lecture hall listening to a speaker that I cannot understand maybe I feel stupid and lost but I look around and nobody's asking any questions so what do I do I keep my mouth shut why because I don't want to be judged stupid there's no value in that happening in fact the value is negative but if I'm not honest that's the only way in which we can learn that so what happens as we go through the creative process is that we don't just create things we create new meaning and value from something we perceive little to no value or meaning previously and in that process we learn a new choice a new choice with which to not only see others but also ourselves to be honest with ourselves and now don't get me wrong not saying this is easy it's in fact a struggle a lot of times as it was the case for me but if we want to learn a new choice a new choice with which to see we have to be willing to listen to another just whether it's a piece of wood or another person it's only when we're willing to listen to another we feel is separate from ourselves and manage to empathize there will be surprised by a new insight now my old job I used to have this thing called the performance review and it's the case where your boss sends a email out to everybody so they can send you some direct feedback but the feedback is filtered through my boss so it's mostly anonymous and the feedback happens only once a year so by the time I get the feedback a completely lost track of what had happened and I don't have enough details to make make the feedback meaningful so one year I decide to do something very different I said I invited all the people I'd worked with to a one-on-one conversation and I said I promised them I'm just going to shut up and listen no defending no argument just complete and utter silence on my part and one conversation in particular on me because as soon as we sat down the person said slim you're intimidating and I was like me intimidating I thought I was a sweetest person in the entire world but he said because you prex project so much confidence in the way you speak and the way you lead meetings I don't feel comfortable sharing my disagreements with you he said because she comes so prepared with such a clear vision in mind I don't feel comfortable contributing my own ideas I was surprised I had no idea that my behaviors could be perceived that way to this day I can't say how grateful I am to have had that opportunity to see myself in a different way in fact I rethought the very idea of what it means to look into the mirror because when we look into the mirror it's not just that we're looking at ourselves we're looking at ourselves from a different perspective it's only when we're willing to look at ourselves from a different perspective then we can learn something new about ourselves that we do not or cannot otherwise know now if there's anything I've learned in the past five years of doing this research it's that we don't see anyone or anything the way they are we see them as we want to and for that reason the first step to realizing empathy is to practice respect but we live in a time where we think respecting is synonymous to tolerating or accommodating we say things like I respectfully disagree which really means you're wrong but I'm nice enough to tolerate your stupidity that's not what it means to respect the Latin root for respect is respecters which means the act of looking back at one in other words the very act of choosing how to look has everything to do with respect to respect you've to accept the fact then when others or even yourself seem weird it's because you expect them to be something else when to respect you have to accept the fact that there's always the possibility of finding a new angle from which to look where that new angle will be surprising but so obvious in hindsight I'll end with a summary when we think of the idea of connection we think of two separate circles connected by a line but in light of the stories I shared with you today I want to propose an alternate model I want you to envision a whole circle separated by a line we call judgment and by becoming honest by becoming aware of how we judge at any given moment and not repressing or disregarding or brushing it off by learning the choice to become honest about them we can momentarily blur that line and empower ourselves to experience the whole circle and to experience that sense of connection thank you
المترجم: ahmed turk المدقّق: Anwar Dafa-Alla واحدة من أروع الحقائق في الفيزياء هي: كل عنصر في الكون بدءاً من الضوء إلى الإلكترونات وحتى الذرات، تسلك سلوك الجسيم والموجة في نفس الوقت وكل الاشياء الغريبة التي سمعت عنها في فيزياء الكم، قط شرونغر، الإله يلعب النرد، الارتباط المريب عن بعد كل هذه منبثقة من حقيقة أن كل العناصر لها طبيعة جسيم وموجة ربما هذا يبدو جنونا. إذا نظرت حولك، سترى موجات في المياه وقطع من الحجر وهما لايتشابهان أبدا. اذا لماذا التفكير في الجمع بينهما؟ لم يقرر الفيزيائيون فجأة الجمع بين هذه الأشياء معا من العدم في الواقع، كانوا منساقين نحو طبيعة الكون المزدوجة من خلال عمليه مكونه من خطوات بسيطه جامعة الكثير من الأدلة معًا، مثل أجزاء الأحجية الشخص الأول الذي اقترح جديًا الطبيعة المزدوجة للضوء كان ألبرت أينشتاين سنة 1905، ولكنه كان يسترجع فكره سابقه من ماكس بلانك. بلانك فسّر ألوان الضوء المنبعثة من الأجسام الساخنة مثل السلك الكهربائي داخل المصباح، لكن لفعل ذلك، احتاج لخدعه يائسة: قال بأن الجسم يتكون من مجموعة من المتذبذبات والتي تبعث الضوء بكميات محدده فقط وحدات من الطاقة معتمدة على تردد الضوء بلانك لم يكن سعيدًا بذلك التفسير، ولكن أينشتين التقط الفكره وانطلق منها. وطبّق فكرة بلانك على الضوء ذاته، قائلاً بأن الضوء، والذي كان يعرف الجميع بأنه موجه، هو في الحقيقة سيل من الفوتونات، كل منها لها كم محدد من الطاقة. أينشتاين بنفسه أطلق عليها الفكرة الثورية الوحيدة التي قام بها ولكنها تفسر الطريقة التي يحرر بها الضوء الساقط على المعادن الإلكترونات حتى الأشخاص الذين كرهوا الفكره اتفقوا أنها ناجحة بشكل عبقري الجزء التالي من الأحجية جاء من إرنست راذرفورد في إنجلترا في 1909، إرنست مارسدن وهانز جايجر، والذان كانا يعملان لدى راذرفورد، أطلقا جسيمات ألفا على ذرات الذهب وكانوا مذهولين لاكتشاف أن بعضها كان يرتد للخلف تمامًا هذا يشير لأن معظم كتلة الذره متركزة في نواه صغيره. شكل نموذج الذره الذي تتعلمه في المدرسة الابتدائية والذي تدور فيه الإلكترونات كنظام شمسي مصغر، هذه فكرة راذرفورد. هناك مشكلة صغيرة في ذرة راذرفورد: لا يمكنها أن تعمل بهذا الشكل الفيزياء الكلاسيكية تخبرنا بأن الإلكترون المتحرك بشكل دائري يبعث الضوء ونحن نستخدم هذا دائمًا لتوليد موجات الراديو وال X-rays ذرة راذرفورد لابد أن تنشر ال X-ray في جميع الجهات للحظه وجيزه وذلك قبل أن يدور الإلكترون حلزونيًا مصطدمًا بالنواة. ولكن نيلز بور، عالم الفيزياء النظرية الدنماركي والذي عمل مع راذرفورد أشار الى أن الذرات موجودة بوضوح، وعليه فعلى الأرجح علينا تغيير قوانين الفيزياء اقترح بور أن الإلكترون في مدارات مخصصه ومحدده لا يبعث أي ضوء مطلقًا. الذرات تمتص وتبعث الضوء فقط عندما يغير الإلكترون مداره، وتردد الضوء يعتمد على الفرق في الطاقة بالطريقة التي قدّمها بلانك وأينشتاين ذرة بور قامت بحل مشكلة راذرفورد وفسّرت لماذا تطلق الذرات ألوانًا محددةً من الضوء فقط كل عنصر يمتلك مداراته المميزة، وعليه فإنه يمتلك مجموعة الترددات المميزه له نموذج بور كان به مشكلة واحدة صغيرة ليس هناك الحاجه لتكون تلك المدارات مميزة. لكن لويس دي بروي، طالب دكتوراه فرنسي، قام بتجميع الافكار منذ البدايه فقد أشار الى أنه إذا كان الضوء، والذي عرف الجميع أنه موجه يتصرف كجسيم، فمن المحتمل أن الإلكترون، والذي عرف الجميع أنه جسيم يتصرف كموجه. وإذا كانت الإلكترونات موجات، فمن السهل تفسير نظرية بور في اختيار مدارات مميزه. بمجرد أن تدرك فكرة أن الإلكترونات تتصرف كالأمواج يمكنك البحث عنها. وخلال سنوات قليله، قام علماء من الولايات المتحدة والمملكة المتحدة بملاحظة السلوك الموجي للإلكترونات في هذه الأيام لدينا تجربة واضحة بشكل رائع لذلك: إطلاق إلكترون منفرد نحو حاجز به شقوق طوليه كل الكترون تم رصده في مكان محدد في وقت محدد، مثل الجسيم. ولكن عندما تكرر التجربة عددًا من المرات، كل تلك الإلكترونات المنفردة تترك أثرًا من الخطوط المتوازية ذات النمط المحدد، والتي هي صفة مميزه للسلوك الموجي. فكرة أن الجسيمات تسلك سلوك الموجات، والعكس، هي واحدة من أغرب وأقوى الظواهر في الفيزياء ريتشارد فاينمان قال جملته الشهيرة بأن ذلك يوضح قلب الغرابه لميكانيكا الكم. كل شيء آخر يتبع ذلك، مثل أجزاء الأحجية توضع في مكانها الصحيح.
المترجم: Mhd. Fady Tootoonjy المدقّق: khalid marbou ربّما سمعتم أنّ ثاني أكسيد الكربون يرفع درجة حرارة الأرض، لكن كيف يحدث ذلك؟ أهو مثل زجاج الدفيئة، أو مثل بطانية عازلة؟ حسنا، ليس تمامًا. تشمل الإجابة القليل من ميكانيكا الكم، لكن لا تقلقوا، سوف نبدأ من قوس قزح. إذا نظرتم عن قرب إلى ضوء الشمس المنقسم من خلال موشور، فسوف ترون فجوات معتمة تفتقد شرائط من الألوان. أين ذهبت؟ قبل وصولها إلى أعينكم، امتصت غازات مختلفة تلك الأجزاء المحددة من ألوان الطيف. على سبيل المثال، انتزع غازالأكسجين بعض الضوء الأحمر الداكن، كما انتزع الصوديوم شريطين من اللون الأصفر. لكن لماذا تمتص هذه الغازات ألوانًا محددة من الضوء؟ هنا ندخل المجال الكمومي. لكلّ ذرة وجزيء عدد محدد من مستويات الطاقة الممكنة لإلكتروناتها. ومن أجل رفع طاقة الإلكترونات من المستوى الأدنى إلى مستويات أعلى، يحتاج الجزيء إلى اكتساب مقدار معيّن من الطاقة. لا أكثر ولا أقل. فيحصل على الطاقة من الضوء، الذي يأتي بمستويات طاقة أكثر مما يمكن إحصاؤه. يتكوّن الضوء من جُسيمات صغيرة تسمى الفوتونات ومقدار الطاقة الموجودة في كلّ فوتون يتوافق مع لونه. فالضوء الأحمر منخفض الطاقة وموجته طويلة. أمّا الضوء البنفسجي فهو عالي الطاقة وقصير الموجة. يوفّر ضوء الشمس جميع فوتونات قوس قزح، فيستطيع جزيء الغاز أن يختار الفوتونات التي تحمل الكمية المناسبة من الطاقة اللازمة لرفع الجزيء إلى مستوى طاقته التالي. وعندما يحدث هذا التطابق، يختفي الفوتون بينما يحصل الجزيء على طاقته، ويصبح لدينا فراغ صغير في قوس قزح. وإذا كان الفوتون يحمل كمّية أكثر أو أقل من الطاقة المطلوبة، فلا يكون للجزيء خيار سوى تركه يمر. هذا هو سبب شفافية الزجاج. إذ لا تقترن ذرات الزجاج جيدًا مع أي من مستويات الطاقة الموجودة في الضوء المرئي، فتمرّ الفوتونات من خلاله. ما هي إذًا الفوتونات التي يفضّلها ثاني أكسيد الكربون؟ أين يوجد الخط الأسود في قوس قزح الذي يفسّر الاحتباس الحراري العالمي؟ حسنٌ، إنّه غير موجود. لا يمتص ثاني أكسيد الكربون الضوء مباشرةً من الشمس. بل يمتصّه من جرم سماوي مختلف كليًّا. جرمٌ لا يبدو أنّه ينبعث منه أيّ ضوء: كوكب الأرض. إن كنتم تتساءلون لم لا يبدو أنّ كوكبنا يتوهّج، ذلك لأنّ الأرض لا ينبعث منها ضوء مرئي. بل ينبعث ضوء تحت الأحمر. الضوء الذي يمكن لأعيننا رؤيته، بما في ذلك جميع ألوان قوس قزح، هو مجرّد جزء صغير من طيف أكبر من الإشعاعات الكهرومغناطيسية، التي تشمل أمواج الراديو، والأمواج الميكروية، وتحت الحمراء، وفوق البنفسجية، والأشعة السينية، وأشعة غاما. ربما يبدو من الغريب التفكير في تلك الأشياء على أنّها ضوء، إلاّ أنّه لا يوجد اختلاف جوهري بين الضوء المرئي والإشعاعات الكهرومغناطيسية الأخرى. فالطاقة هي ذاتها، لكن في مستوى أعلى أو أدنى. في الواقع، إنّ من الغطرسة تعريف مصطلح الضوء المرئي بناءً على محدوديتنا. ففي نهاية المطاف، الضوء دون الأحمر مرئي بالنسبة للأفاعي، والضوء فوق البنفسجي مرئي بالنسبة للطيور. ولو تكيّفت أعيننا على رؤية الضوء بتردد 1900 ميغاهيرتز، فإنّ الهاتف الخلوي سوف يصبح ضوء كشافا، وسوف تبدو الأبراج الخلوية مثل مصابيح ضخمة. تنبعث من الأرض الأشعة تحت الحمراء لأنّ الضوء ينبعث من كلّ جسمٍ له حرارة فوق الصفر المطلق. وهذا ما يسمى بالإشعاع الحراري. كلما ارتفعت حرارة الجسم، ارتفع تردد الضوء المنبعث منه. عندما تقومون بتسخين قطعة من الحديد، ينبعث منها المزيد من ترددات الضوء تحت الأحمر، وعند بلوغها حوالي 450 درجة مئوية، يصل ضوءها إلى الطيف المرئي. تبدو في البداية ساخنة لدرجة الاحمرار. وعند ازدياد التسخين، تتوهج باللون الأبيض فتنبعث منها جميع ترددات الضوء المرئي. هذه هي الطريقة التي صُممت لتعمل بها المصابيح التقليدية وهي السبب في أنّها كثيرة الهدر. فـ 95 بالمئة من الضوء الذي تصدره غير مرئي لأعيننا. ويضيع على شكل حرارة. تنطلق الأشعة تحت الحمراء المنبعثة من الأرض في الفضاء إذا لم تتوفر جزيئات غاز الدفيئة في غلافنا الجوي. ومثلما يفضّل غاز الأكسجين الفوتونات الحمراء الداكنة، فإنّ ثاني أكسيد الكربون وغازات الدفيئة الأخرى تفضّل الفوتونات تحت الحمراء. فهي توفّر كمية الطاقة المناسبة لنقل جزيئات الغاز إلى مستوى طاقتها الأعلى. وبعد وقت قصير من امتصاص جزيئات ثاني أكسيد الكربون للفوتونات تحت الحمراء، تعود إلى مستوى طاقتها السابق، وتلفظ الفوتونات باتجاه عشوائي. ثم يعود جزء من تلك الطاقة إلى سطح الأرض، ما يتسبب بارتفاع درجة الحرارة. وكلّما ازداد ثاني أكسيد الكربون في الغلاف الجوي، زاد احتمال أن تعود الفوتونات تحت الحمراء وتحط على الأرض فيتغير بذلك مناخنا.