welcome to today's distracted driving awareness month webinar during today's presentation attendees will be in a listen-only mode if during the program you would like to submit a question please use the chat pod and that's located in the lower left hand corner of your screen just type your question in the box at the bottom and click send if you should have any technical difficulties you may contact the help desk and that numbers eight six six two nine seven two nine zero one so now I'll turn things over to the National Safety Council please go ahead our first speaker that we'd like to introduce is Deb Trombley who has worked in injury prevention programs in communication for more than 25 years she currently works on behavior and policy change for distracted driving and she's also worked on alcohol impaired driving teen driving and child passenger safety she shares effective prevention strategies with many audiences businesses lobbyists and organizations advocating for federal and state laws state coalition's communities and safety professionals Deb trolley has a master's degree in public health from the University of Michigan and a bachelor's degree in public relations and marketing from Eastern Michigan University and Deb Trombley is the senior program manager of transportation initiatives here at the National Safety Council so yeah great thank you and welcome everybody thanks for taking the time to call in for our distracted driving awareness month webinar so today I'll be talking about some approaches to reduce distracted driving but with perhaps what might be a surprising twist for you usually we're talking to the drivers and trying to influence them to stop doing something risky instead today what we'll talk about are all the other people around the drivers the family friends passengers their employers will also talk about all the people who are on the roads around the driver and rather than telling drivers to stop doing a risky action we'll talk about a positive approach that suggests what they can do to be safe so if you're if you happen to not be familiar with the National Safety Council this is your first time joining one of our webinars or participating in distracted driving awareness month eliminating these preventable deaths from car crashes as well as in workplace and in homes is what we're all about unfortunately right now though traffic crashes are going in the wrong direction and fatalities are going in the wrong direction they're going up MSE estimated at about twenty forty thousand two hundred people died in traffic crashes last year in 2016 and that's an increase of six percent over 2015 and it's up fourteen percent over the past two years since 2014 this is the largest increase that we've seen in 50 in 53 years of crashes but the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration found is that 94 percent of crashes a huge majority of these crashes involve driver errors and the driver choices and decisions and mistakes that drivers make and of the remaining six percent that would be roadway the environment like weather and there's a small percentage where we weren't able to determine so they're unknown but the types of driver errors that are made they include things like inattention distractions illegal maneuvers driving fatigue today we're going to talk a little bit more about the in attention in the distractions and distraction fatalities are up 8.8% that's outpacing the increase in all overall crash fatalities as going faster than other major fatal crash factors such as alcohol you know in this distraction fatality growth is happening despite public knowledge of dangers of using cell phones while driving and other distractions we've all been talking about all these risks for years now so what can we do different to perhaps influence people to change their behavior that's what we'll talk a little bit more about today every year NFC surveys drivers and there's interesting findings I know other organizations have found similar results when you ask drivers about their own behavior and what they worry about what other drivers when we ask this question you know did you feel you're at risk because another driver was distracted by technology 67% said yes but of those same people they themselves felt they put themselves or others at risk 25% of them did and what's interesting is that and we know some research has shown that those who perform worst when they're distracted are not likely to recognize their own bad performance so at least in our survey 25 percent had the awareness and insight to realize their behavior put themselves and others at risk but how many do not even realize this about themselves so when you look at what drivers are willing to do while they're driving this is from a survey that we did in 2016 and one important note to mention about this graph this is now just teen drivers I don't when we talk about social media and video we tend to think a lot about teen drivers this was primarily adult drivers we did have some teen drivers in the survey in this population also skew is a little older for adult drivers so look at the kind of things that they said they'd be willing to do here of course we know that phone calls and GPS are common smartwatches those are new relatively new to the market they've been around for a few years they've already grown to a level where drivers are willing to use them while driving keep in mind this is adult drivers who are willing to use do text messaging while driving and emails while driving just before this webinar started those of us in the webinar room here we we put our phones on airplane mode because you know you get notifications on your phone when you get a text message or a news report for a website that you said yes 70 notifications and you would hear our phones dinging probably constantly throughout this webinar so we those are also distracting if you happen to look at your phone when it things social media you know the seem to note about some of these numbers as they might seem small in to some people looking at photo and video but if you think about it this is 19 percent of people who love drivers who responded to the survey saying that they'd be willing to look at photos or videos often or occasionally while driving nineteen percent is really high for for a willingness to do a behavior like that I mean this this should be zero we can acknowledge maybe it would be 0.5% for people who maybe don't have very good judgment but to think that these numbers could be at this level is pretty astounding so video chat you know there's all kinds of things that we can do with our phones now that that people can do while they're driving so I said at the beginning of the webinar that to address this problem of driver distraction I would talk more about all the other people around the drivers in that these drivers themselves like the people who responded to the survey and said they're willing to do these things and the thought behind that is because and those of us worked on traffic safety you know we've dealt with this for a while when we tell people they're going to crash but then they do these distracting things and they don't crash are we showing ourselves to be wrong in the minds of these drivers in the minds of the drivers that we're targeting the lack of crashes could be reinforcing whatever they believe about themselves they are mistaken but they could believe that their superior multitaskers really you know it's probably probability that that is it's at work here crashes are rare events they certainly do happen fatal crashes happen to more than 40,000 people in 2016 but in the big picture of the more than 300 million people who live in this country for any individual a serious or fatal crash can be a rare event so this is a huge challenge we all deal with in traffic safety but people think they won't be the ones to cause a crash and you know that's an it's called an optimistic bias which is a pretty formidable foe for those of us who work on prevention but there might be opportunity and that people do still worry about these other drivers if a crash happens it's because of the other driver is what people may believe so how can we tap into this and capitalize on this so what we'll do next is show a video to you that will they'll kind of give you a feel for how we're surrounded by distracted drivers [Applause] [Applause] you [Applause] [Applause] [Applause] [Applause] okay we could we could stop the video it continues like this it's showing how many drivers are distracted either talking on the phone or texting or eating food while they're driving and what I would also suggest that we think about is beyond these technology distractions how many more of these drivers might've had a drink before they're driving how many of them may have taken a medication that could impair their driving how many of them might be a little too drowsy how many of them are new teens and novice drivers how many of them might be driving aggressively so when this this project of the SS that 8% of drivers were distracted I think if we also added up how many might be drowsy impaired by alcohol or other drugs they're new to driving or aggressive emotional drivers what percent of drivers around us at any moment in time you know what would that percentage add up to and I think if you added them all up in addition to the large percent of distracted drivers you know think about what mistake any of them could make at any moment in time I think people might feel a little uncomfortable with that thought that you know do we trust the drivers around us as much as we might trust ourselves and what are these drivers being influenced by so that's kind of the major question I think if we can tap into that lack of trust and all these other drivers around us tap into a worry about what any of these drivers might do at any moment it boosts a perception of susceptibility to crashes and feeling susceptible is important to behavior change that you will feel personally susceptible like this could happen to you that is the piece that's missing you know when drivers think that they they have an overactive mystic bias about about their own risk so we've all had situations where another driver did something that was really unexpected you know most of us in situations where a driver ran a red light they ran a stop sign spun out of control might have swerved into our lane or crossed over a centerline and and we're coming at us head-on they slammed on their brakes when we didn't expect them to do that how many times have we all seen this happen and here's a key note happened to us personally but if we didn't crash it's usually because we did take an action immediately to avoid getting hit or avoid hitting another vehicle how are we able to do that it's because we were paying attention we were watching these other drivers and we were ready at any moment to respond to anything unexpected then another driver did and that is what is driving defensively and driving attentively so that there is a number of organizations now they are talking about moving in this direction with communications and tapping into people's motivations there is a motivation that people want to protect themselves and there's other loved ones in their car with them to watch for hazards and any surprise dangers that could pop up because of what other drivers are doing around us it's a more positive approach where you tell people what to do instead of what not to do the thing is is that you cannot do this you can't drive attentively or drive defensively if you're also driving distracted so it's taking that distracted driving message and flipping it around to a positive message to tell people what we think they should do the other piece of it is what about all the people around the drivers themselves passengers passengers could speak up at the villa drivers doing something unsafe passengers can serve as a positive co-pilot to help a driver drive more safely we don't need to call or text people when we know they're driving NFC did a survey last year that found 80% of drivers reported feeling the most pressure by their family members to use phones while driving they felt like somebody is our mom or spouse or daughter or son is calling them and even though they're driving they need to respond to that call sometimes if you don't respond to the call right away because you're driving somebody texts you back again right away that builds a pressure on the driver that is unsafe for the driver and the driver doesn't need and I think in in those kinds of communications it does really take two to tango if the person on the other end of the phone is not raising the distraction for the driver it helps to build a whole culture that it is unacceptable to use the phone while driving if you having to call somebody and the driver does answer say you'll call them back you know this isn't a safe time to talk let me know when you're safely parked and I'll call you back then I know there's a lot of employers on the line today and employers have a huge role they can play the employers can stop expecting employees to use phones while they're driving as part of their job in our last year survey that we did about 50 percent of drivers felt pressured by employers to use their phones while driving these therefore if conversation email is growing as is something that adult drivers feel they need to do as part of their work so this is more of a social approaches of changing the culture through the people who are closest to the drivers who are using the phones to have family friends employers and passengers the people who are very close to the driver saying something different and making it truly socially unacceptable and you know we're not and for at that point yet we're cell phone use is truly socially unacceptable because you know so many people still are doing it if you can imagine how many people would drive with an open can of a beer nowadays it would be unthinkable for somebody to do that how can we get to that point for most people with cell phones but wanting to share a few examples with you I mentioned earlier that there's a number of organizations who are moving toward this approach one of them is the Harvard School of Public Health their center for health communication and dr. Jay Winston runs that program and what they're what they're looking at is the same designated driver approach where you can apply the same concept from alcohol so that perhaps a passenger could take care of text messages and phone calls instead of the driver so that the driver can focus on and they're driving you know allocate that that task to a passenger so this is the driver and so you have a sober driver so you have a driver who is also attentive they're also using the defensive driver and a ton of driver approach using the concept of protecting yourself from threats that may be around you because of other drivers on the road there's the idea of the visual scanning that is the key thing that we need to do as drivers in order to detect hazards that could be habit being up ahead of us and be able to respond to them so that Harvard is looking at the visual scanning as a key concept for an action that drivers can take and also the social aspect of having passengers speak up when they don't feel safe and vivi one of our survivor advocates with the National Safety Council Joel Feldman runs this nonprofit organization and they are using a similar approach with an easy way to remember it is the spider acronym and that was developed by dr. David Strayer and dr. Donald Fisher and NDB is communicating it's very similar to the Harvard approach where you would scan for potential threats predict where threats can could come from identify actual threats decide whether to act and what action to take in executing and the appropriate responses to those threats and really that is defensive driving and it's a ton of driving you can't take those steps if you're not driving attentively and again distracted driving is it's incredible with this approach to be able to drive attendance Lee atnt it's been interesting this month to see during distracted driving awareness month some of the campaign's that that are rolling out and you know it's turning out that many of them were all kind of looking at a similar approach where they they survey people is found more than half of drivers would stop using their phones if a friend asked them to so they're they're playing up on a mat so that spouses friends parents children passengers speak up when in the car help navigate help the driver watch for hazards be good co-pilots passengers can take care of incoming texts and phone calls on a phone so that the driver isn't distracted and it communicates that distracted driving is never okay so it could be that drivers are you know they're they're maybe waiting for somebody close to them say I don't want you to do this while you're driving I saw this was interesting from the Massachusetts Highway Safety Division they are choosing a positive approach of driving present and focusing on the road and you can see here that even in their imagery they're playing up at the motivation to get home safely to your children into your family so they're targeting the adults who are using phones while driving and driving the point home bed your family is counting on you to get home safe dan taps into a positive motivation I think another thing that we've been talking about is that you know there are benefits to using phones while driving there are perceived benefits and that's why people do it and what we have to do to change that behavior is introduce another benefit that outweighs any perceived benefit of using a phone so that's what a lot of these approaches are arguing there's an interesting program where you can use the NAG power of children and if you if you check out this website it's pretty funny because they say that the naired power from children is a renewable resource as anyone who is a parent knows so they're educating children about the risks of driving distracted and there's a video there's a game they encourage children to speak up to their parents when they see parents driving distracted so that's you know and hopefully that would educate the children early on when they're at that early age from around age 6 to 11 where they see the world in right and wrong so that they grow up with the culture of not driving distracted and then here at the National Safety Council dismounts for distracted driving awareness month we chose the campaign of just drive and that kind of encapsulates all the positive messaging that I just talked through then the other piece is that you know for a lot of these a lot of these distractions it really only takes just an instant just a split-second for something bad that affects you for ever to happen so that's the other piece that we're building into us and it's April 19th it's only two-thirds through distracted driving awareness month they're still 11 days left so if you haven't yet registered for materials you can go to our website and see that org finished easy month and download materials so one one aspect that that we played up this month is the social aspect where you know there's places where it might be rude to use phones or inconvenient to use phones and leave we would speak up to people if they use this on in a movie theater it's just not an acceptable place to do it we also have some posters that revolve around the using problems in the restaurant people use phones in restrooms there's places where it's just not it is not cool to use the phone in these environments but the thing is when they're used in a car it can hurt or kill somebody not maybe not necessarily in a movie theater so we're trying to encourage passengers to feel more comfortable with speaking up when they're in a car and a driver might be putting them in danger the other piece that I mentioned earlier is employer policies employers can be a powerful influencer you know I have an advertisement I sometimes share and presentations when the ad is from the late 1980s I believe in it shows the tagline says you know turn your car into your office that you can be productive with car phones and we remember the days back in the 80s in the early 90s when we had brick phones and bad phones and they were they were sold to business at that point for people to be I'm using quote marks but productive while they're driving to or from work in their car we didn't know then what we know now and you'll hear from dr. Paulo actually in a minute about some of the research around the distraction of driving the some of that research we knew back in the late 1990s mid 1990s so this isn't new knowledge it's not necessarily a new message we learned pretty quickly but nowadays many employers many the largest employers in the world many of the fortune 500 have now passed policies they at the end both hand held in hands-free phone use while driving so if people hear from their employers that hey you know what we realized that this is not a safe behavior and we don't expect you to put yourself at risk while driving on behalf of your work then you know that can be a powerful tool for culture change so we have materials to help employers to test these policies they're all free there's a whole kit a Tennessee that org slash policy kit it has a sample policy white papers it has a couple case studies of businesses they have passed these policies and camera ready or educational materials that you can just print in you so you don't have to go through the work of putting them together yourself if you're curious about how your policy compares to a best practice or NFC's recommendation you can go to NSC that org slash policy tool and it's just a quick series of seven questions and you can fill those out it'll give you feedback that shows the gap between your current policy and the best practice recommended policy and thank you for your time today and we'll turn it over to Bridget to introduce dr. Ashley okay our next speaker is dr. Paul Ashley and he is a he is renowned for his research that focuses on issues of vision and attention related to driving he has worked with multidisciplinary research teams on issues related to sign design older driver training and screening and work zone safety he currently is working on cognitive effects of in vehicle technology dr. paul ashley received his PhD in cognitive psychology from the University of Chicago University of California Riverside in 1996 and completed postdoctoral training at the University of Illinois urbana-champaign in 1998 he has been the recipient of both the h-burner cinq Award for Excellence in teaching and a Kemper fellowship for teaching excellence so welcome dr. Paul Ashley great it's great to be with here with you here today and thank you for the invitation it's always a pleasure to be able to reach out and make sure that the research is being translated for people that can actually make change that will save lives today what I'm going to talk about is a little bit different than my standard talk I'm going to discuss some of the research but really one on what I want to do is Doug tail with what Deb was saying with regard to what we talked about as safety culture and that is what happens in your organization's to communicate to employees that it's okay or not okay to drive distracted now before we get to that I do think it's really important to discuss what we need to understand about the research realm also could I get the controls back I don't have the controls here we go all right now AB controls thank you very much okay so there's no question is that was pointing out that distraction is in fact killing us the data are clear and one thing I everyone needs to understand about that 40,000 200 number Deborah's discussing is that's a number that's a lot higher in some sense than we think and here's I want you to think about it we're getting a number that we haven't seen in probably nearly a decade it's a lot worse as we'll discuss then countries around the world that have much better safety cultures than we do with respect to traffic but that number is really bad when you think about all the improvements to roadway safety that we've experienced over the last you know five decades our cars are safer we have anti-lock brakes and stability control crumple zones airbag systems that surround the driver and the passenger our roads are safer we have rumble stripes and rumble strips we have median dividers we have roundabouts and diamond to interchanges to make our roadways safer than they've ever been before emergency services are better it's more likely that someone's going to get to the crash if it's happened that they can get you out of the vehicle in the event of a crash and that they can service you medically at that scene much better than ever before and if you happen to get taken to a hospital your chance of surviving is better than it ever has been and yet somehow we're losing more people than ever two crashes what that tells me and when you look at the data and the fact that the injury crashes are going down but the fatal crashes are going up is that the kinds of crashes that we are seeing are crashes that are particularly severe crashes where it doesn't seem like someone was even looking at the roadway and they ended up hitting someone at a very high rate of speed if anyone out there thinks if this isn't a problem you need to disabuse yourself of that because this is a growing problem and it's going to get a lot worse what you don't understand is from a research perspective this is not something that we're just coming to as researchers in fact we've been doing research on the effect of phones in cars for over 50 years the first study of this was actually done in 1969 and that means it was actually the work was done in 1967 and since then we've done hundreds of studies of the effect of distracted driver driving when I tell you that we know that driving using a phone in any manner is unsafe I'm not saying that based upon a couple of studies or a few different methods I'm saying that based upon hundreds of studies from different laboratories over long periods of time using many methodologies I just want to give you a flavor of that so you can really understand that this is a problem we know it's a problem for example there have been epidemiological studies where we have taken folks that have been in crashes and looked at their phone records and what's interesting about these studies they were done at different time points by different laboratories of one study with injury crashes one study was non injury crashes but they both found almost exactly the same thing if you're using a phone and it doesn't matter if it scans for your hands hope they looked at that your chance of the unit crash goes up between four or five hundred percent in other words if you're using a phone your chance of being your crash is equivalent to that of a drunk driver and again these are two studies that were done by very different laboratories and yet getting these very surprisingly similar results and speaking of drunk driving if you actually were to take a driver get them drunk like Dave Strayer did at the University of Utah and have them drive in a driving simulator and try to react to events what you would find is if you brought that person back sober but have them talk on a hands-free phone to someone that wasn't in the car with them they actually drive better drum I'm not advocating drunk driving but what I'm saying is the drunk drivers knew that they were impaired and so they tried to compensate for that impairment they did tend to drive more aggressively they tended to be slower in their reaction times but when they did notice an event and they didn't fail to notice events they tended to crush the brake pedal in response the distracted drivers the ones on the thumb they didn't notice events and they had four crashes where the drunk drivers never crashed so when you compare a drunk driver and sober driver just like with those epidemiological studies the drunk driver actually drives a little bit better in our laboratory we've measured visual attention and drivers using a device that's used to screen older drivers from the road and what I will tell you is by simply giving someone a hands-free cellphone conversation we can take a nineteen year old adult who has the attention profile of a rocket set of a fighter pilot and we can actually make them look like a seven year old adult with Alzheimer's disease simply by having them engage in a hands-free conversation it takes a lot of your brain to drive and when you try to do two things at the same time your brain has to make choices and you can see this when you start looking at the behaviors of individuals that are driving distracted so there's been a lot of work for example looking at the eye movement patterns of distracted drivers I want you to imagine that there's a driver driving down your street where your kids are playing on the sidewalk or maybe a street where your grandkids are playing what you want from an attentive driver is you would want them scanning the environment looking for hazards you want them looking on the right-hand side like in this image where there's a sidewalk maybe for kids playing your car's backing out on the street you'd want them looking on the left for cars getting ready to turn in front of them and expecting away and like my grandmother taught me to drive you want them looking as far down the road as possible and that larger red box is essentially where attentive driver looks for hazards when you give that same driver a hands-free conversation with someone that's not in the vehicle with them in car conversations are different because those tend to get regulated as a function of traffic demands and that passenger could serve as a second set of eyes but when that person is talking to something that's not in the car with them and that conversation just goes on and on now they scan a region of space that's about the width of the steering wheel and about the distance of the front bumper of the car they have the sense that they're looking at the road but they're not fully looking at it and not fully scanning it and that means when your kid or drink it leaves the sidewalk chasing a toy and they get out in the street this person doesn't even have a chance of seeing it until they're essentially under the front bumper of their vehicle this is not the driver that you want driving down your street and this isn't the driver that you want to be and this happens because the brain just lacks resources to do multiple things at the same time we feel like we can multitask but we don't be task switch and your brain has to make choices when presented with the opportunity to do multiple things for example in this image you're looking at activity in the brain as a function of whether or not someone was actually talking about phones on the left that kind of reddish area indicates where blood is flowing which basically tells us what neurons are active that's the back of the head docks with little cortex primary visual processing area and what you're seeing is a lot of activity when someone's being asked to look at a screen and drive it for a set of driving images on the right they're looking at the screen and trying to process what's on it but they're also being asked to listen to sentences and answer some simple true/false questions and what you see is a 40% reduction in brain activity because brain activity starts to flow the temporal cortex so that person can actually listen to what's being said and everyone is listening to this webinars experience that's because when you're talking to someone who's on the phone and they're driving the conversation does not sound full and complete it sounds like half a conversation because they're saying um what what you're hearing there is their brain trying to take resources away from listening and responding to you and put it back an occipital cortex in decision-making area so that they drive effectively and when you say honey are you listening to me and they say oh yes and the conversation turns to normal what happens is the brain of that individual now moves those resources away from seeing the roadway to listening and responding to you which is one reason to kind of paraphrase what Deb was saying one good decision you can make is if you call someone and they're driving you can put the phone down and say I'll call you later because you shouldn't be the person that's in the backseat pouring them tequila shots while they're driving you know I could go on and on about this research I will tell you we've recently completed a paper that just came out this year you can search for my name find it or we've actually reviewed 342 studies that have been done over the last 50 years looking at various forms of distraction and driving performance and across those 342 studies which compromised about 1600 and 8 different measures of distraction with about 20,000 people we see a surprisingly similar pattern of results the graph that you're seeing here is it is one way to kind of summarize that and what you're seeing are talking on a handheld phone hands-free phone or texting and those numbers are essentially the number of times in a study there is a measure for example of texting and it showed that there is a negative effect on performance or no effect or performance was actually improved so for example if we were to look at texting there are 115 times where texting was examined and it showed a negative effect on driving performance and 9 where we didn't find anything and one thing to understand in sciences we don't always find things you know we sometimes do a bad experiment or a graduate student blows it and they don't do it right and so sometimes we don't find something but the overwhelming majority of studies is we would expect show that there's a negative effect of driving on driving performance if you're texting but here's the real key if you were to look at those talking hands held and talking hands-free studies and all the measurements and those they are over decades and different laboratories compromising thousands of thousands of people but they show exactly the same results about 81 of the time we find that using a phone in any manner produces a negative effect on driving performance sure sometimes you don't find anything or we may even find slight improvement but there's really no disagreement about whether or not using a phone in any manner is going to have a negative effect on your ability to drive this is not a controversial topic which is why the National Safety Council estimates probably a quarter of the crashes in the US are attributable cellphones and clinically I think this number is a lot lower than it really is now because this is an estimate that was done back when texting wasn't as common and now it's texting and snapchat and a bunch of other things and we're seeing the usage rate goes up I think this could be much higher but even if it was one quarter what you need to understand is that means that there were 10,000 people last year that died as a function of someone sending a text or making a call where you add and so what you need to understand as someone who cares about the issue of distracted driving is that this is a very important issue for all of us because it's a it's a massive issue I mean saying that audio is going in and out is there anyone having that problem I'm just going to keep going and if there's a problem if you can get corrected on on the other end so let's pop it about changing culture and what I want to discuss here and changing culture is this idea of towards zero deaths because toward zero deaths is something that we'll see in various companies have their own version of this that's really trying to communicate that we need to really make a change to the safety culture in the United States when it comes to traffic safety but one thing we often react to when we hear this is that it's not realistic in the u.s. to get to zero death you know we've been losing thousands of people for people for decades and people just get a little bit jaded about it but what I want you to consider is the fact that if we were to think about not accepting perfect safety in other areas it would be completely unacceptable if we said 99.9 percent safe was good enough what that would mean is that we'd be willing to have an hour of unsafe drinking water every month or if you're flying true through Chicago there would be about 900 unsafe landings affecting 132 thousand people or if you were going into the hospital and they said we're going to have we're going to surgeries today but each state's going to endure ten improper surgical procedures today maybe it's you maybe at someone else you probably would walk away from the hospital it mean we produce well over a quarter million defective tires and that's relevant because of the six percent of crashes that aren't due to human error most of those are due to tires we don't accept less than perfect in many other areas of our life when it comes to safety and so I think what we need to understand is that when it comes to traffic safety zero is really the only acceptable goal for us so I want to talk a little bit at the entir about the role of culture and safety culture because everyone that's listening to this phone call today is a leader and they can be a leader in changing the culture of driving safety so I want to talk a little bit about culture and norms you know we talked about understanding behavioral change using psychological models like this and when we talk about safety change what we understand is that what other people do around us is an important signal for what we consider to be acceptable and unacceptable for example at the University of Kansas where people students particularly are hyper connected even though they know that it's unsafe to use phones while driving particularly to text ninety seven percent of students text and drive and what they'll tell you is they do that because everyone else is doing the same thing the role of norms is extremely powerful and you need to use norms in order to change behavior but what you need to understand is norms come in a couple of different flavors there are descriptive norms like we just talked about which is essentially what is everyone else around me doing but there's also another type of norm called an injunctive norms an injunctive norm is a norm that is basically what does culture say is the right and wrong thing to do and I think what you need to understand is these kinds of rules that we put into place in our organizations or the policies that we have or even laws serve as powerful normative signals to folks so that they can understand what is right and what is wrong but if you're going to use social norming and you're going to put norms into place what you have to understand is you have to be very careful in the way in which you do it and I want to give you an example of how not to do it as well as how to do it so there's been some great research done on this by some researchers including Bob salvini and others where they've looked at how to use norms to get people to do things like use less power and in their study what they did was they gave people a little device that measured how much electricity they were using and essentially told them this you're using X amount of electricity you're using more or less than the people around you and the nice thing about doing this is when people were using too much energy and they were told that they were using too much energy relative to everyone else around them what happened was people started to use less energy they said oh I'm using too much everyone around me is using less I'll go ahead and use less too but the problem was when you had people that were actually using less energy than average and they were told that they were using less energy than average those folks actually tended to use more energy as a result not less in other words if someone thought that they were doing a good thing and they were actually better than most they move towards the average which in this case was not a good thing so what the researchers that did is they simply added an injunctive norm and their injunctive norm they're there you should do this or not do this was simply a smiley face or a frowny face when someone was engaging in behavior that they liked or didn't like in other words if you were using too much energy but you're improving you got a smiley face but you also got a smiley face if you were using less energy than average and when they did this what they saw was people tended to actually use less energy if they were using too much but if they were already using less energy than necessary they tended to stay where they were the important thing for you to understand is you have to have rules in place they set norms but also the people that are in your organizations who are already doing the right things they need to be recognized and rewarded because these are the champions that can help you do the right thing and help others in that order that may not be going in the right direction also do the right thing so those people need to mean to be maintained and fostered and they mean to be held up as examples so if you actually want to get safety change done what you need to understand is this guy I put this picture up this is a picture my student sent me she said oh wait I didn't take a picture my boyfriend was driving our and I took the picture I want to believe that's true but what you have here is someone who is actually engaging in a very safe behavior they're using a helmet and the reason they're using a helmet is because when they get on the base at Fort Riley if they're not wearing a helmet they're going to get stopped at the base and they're going to get pulled over and they're going to have a really bad day there's wearing that helmet not because it's a law in Kansas but because it's a very hard and fast rule for the base he's going to drive on too and that's an example of an injunctive norm this is what's required why is he texting he's texting because we don't have strong injunctive norms against texting in Kansas and that phone is extremely attractive to him and so what he's trying to do is simply do what's right for him at that moment in time in the absence of rules rules are extremely important and when we have the right kind of culture we can do the things but if we don't have a right kind of culture it can go to very bad direction I've done a lot of work over the last few years looking at safety culture around the world I work with folks in Japan and China for example and I will tell you we are not the safest country by far I think we ranked 14th among industrialized nations there are countries like China which are far worse and they're not worse because their cars aren't as good as ours or the roadway engineering is poor they're worse because their culture is worse you know in China there's a there's a phrase he who comes in second place deserves a beating and basically what that means is you always have to strive to be in front because there's a million people right behind you trying to get to your place and what this leads to are scrambling behaviors and other kinds of behaviors on the roadways that lead to very unsafe practices we need to make sure that we're reinforcing good practices on our roadways so that we can actually get to countries like Japan the UK and Sweden and who have are twice the safest us when it comes to roadway fatalities now I want to leave us with the idea that this is an achievable goal we can actually change norms and we can actually as a result change behaviors and we've got some examples of this you know back in the 70s drunk driving was a lot more acceptable than it is now if you were pulled over driving drunk in the 60s or 70s you're probably just as likely to get a police officer saying ma'am you look like you're under the weather let's let's take you home as you were to go to jail but that's changed and it's changed because in 1981 Candace Lightner lost her 13 year old daughter to a three times convicted drunk driving and when she found in lad she got legislators to actually follow the laws that had been on the books since in some cases 1917 in the United States and back in those days in the 70s if you were to ask someone about a drunk driving crash and say there is weather involved they say the weather caused the crash and not the drunk driver but if you didn't now you get a very different result we redid this study we also did this study where we gave a narrative that it was texting and driving the person was sober but they were texting and there's some good news here and the good news was that when we asked how preventable the crash was people didn't worry about whether when it was during someone was drinking they said the drinking caused the crash as compared to someone who's being attentive so that's good news the norms have definitely shifted but here's what's also interesting they said that the texting driver was far more responsible for the crash than the drunk driver this is because people know how bad distracted driving is but here's the bad news when we ask them to punish the distracted driver they tended to punish the drunk driver more even though they said the drunk driver was less responsible than the distracted driver wait for the sound and one of the reasons for that is because norms have not changed with respect to distracted driving and when we've asked them to either assign a fine or assign jail time people tended to make that assignment based upon those injunctive norms the strong laws that are in place against drunk driving rather than what they knew the responsibility level was for that particular driver the point here is that even in the past thirty years attitudes Adventure of driving of change and they change because we started to enforce laws that we have on the books and those changes have changed people's attitudes about those behaviors we can do the same thing in our organization with respect to putting in good rules and practices with regard to distracted driving and when you do that you will start to see shifts in your own culture with regard to driving distracted I really do appreciate the chance to be with you today and to the NSE for making this possible if you're interested in more information about this there's a great book by matt rick tool called the deadly wandering which highlights a lot of the brain science and some of the journeys that other cultures have been on I appreciate your attention and hopefully we'll have a couple of minutes for questions thank you all for taking the time to attend today great thank you so much dr. Ashley for your presentation and taking this time to talk with us and we do have a couple questions that I can go through and answer one of them was a question about employer policies that are employers becoming more aggressive what I can tell you is that it is it's hard to know how many employers at any point have these policies it's you know it's not like there's a national database of these employer policies but at the council we surveyed the fortune 500 back in 2010 and at that time 20 percent of Fortune 500 companies that have responded had policies being handheld and hands-free and so that was seven years ago now and you know in our work we have seen more of the country's leading employers passing these policies so it is something that is becoming a more common policy among employers and in addition to that there are a number of employers who ban hands hand held only or texting only although our recommendation is that they ban handheld and hands-free and so speaking to that there was another question about Bluetooth and hands-free risk and I can give you a resource to look at to learn more about the risk and then I probably have a little bit more to add we do have a white paper that is located at the brain that NSC org and again that's the brain that NSC org and you can go to that URL and it will take you to a PDF of a white paper we did that gathered information from 30 studies that looked at both handheld and hands-free phone use and found that there was no safety benefit to using hands-free and Polly did do you have anything to add to that that people should know well I mean I added the database which covers a lot more studies and here's here's the bottom line common-sense a way to think about it if touching something was the problem we would have gotten rid of stick shifts years ago it's not touching something that's that creates the problem it's not happening your mind on the road that creates the problem and while it's true that there's some brief period of time where manipulating phone probably does elevate your risk that's a very small period of time compared to having a half hour conversation the risk exposure from the conversation is what's the problem not touching the phone so there's nothing in the science that says that hands-free is going to be any better and it also just doesn't make any sense from a common-sense standpoint there sure and so I another question is is it useful to lobby for hands-free laws given the equivalence and risk with using with using hands-free or headset so here's I think there are several different things to look at with that and I don't know that we know the answer today you know many people who are advocating for handheld bans you know the states are experiencing issues with difficulty with enforcing texting only bans it's just you know they're touching a phone they could be texting or they could be dialing phone number it adds a lot of complications for enforcement so there is a thinking that if there's a handheld ban that you could better enforce the law if the council we you know we certainly believe in the risk of hands-free and there is a question if there's a handheld ban will that shift risk over the hands-free and you know we do see in surveys that drivers are shifting that behavior from handheld to hands-free so we do have a question if you're shifting the risk you know just to another way of using a device while driving I think the unknown at this point is you know is there in that benefit and is there a way to study that is there a net benefit between being able to better enforce the hand held views versus the shift in drivers moving over to hands-free use and you know it today right now I don't know the answer to that Paul I don't do you have anything any other cyber about that you know a couple things one vien laws are compromises in it's often the case that a law only goes part of the way to what we really want as an example drunk driving laws for a long time we're 0.1 zero even though we knew if you're a little bit less drunk you were still at high risk does that mean the point 1 0 wall was a bad law no it sends a signal that drunk driving was unacceptable a hands-free ban or handheld ban sends a signal that using a phone is unacceptable does it send a signal that hands-free might be safe that might be the case but I think that we have to recognize that laws are often written as compromises them and it's an iterative process my feeling is is any benefit we can get from someone not using a phone is a good benefit and a lot of folks will not use a phone if they know that touching is going to create a ticket for them we should be striving for better but that's not a bad place to start so there's a number of questions about technology and if they're a solution with technology there are a number of apps and devices that can essentially put a phone in an airplane mode while you're driving and they're pretty common among parents they're good for parents of teen drivers if you're concerned about your teens using phones while driving you can put those types of apps and devices on their phone or in their car I know that fleets often use those devices to support cellphone policies I think the one thing about those those kinds of apps are that drivers who obviously drivers who want to use their phones while driving are not going to be likely to put them on their phone so for those drivers there there might be another solution and so we did also get a question about this a little bit a different question but it's about safe driving education in schools and that the task is often left to parents to educate teen drivers about safe driving and it kind of driving and you know that's that is common across the country that you don't have me invaded driver education even if there is driver education we recommend that the parent does still need to stay involved actively involved in educating their teen about safe driving for at least a year after even after the permit and learning period ends the parent is should still be coaching the team on how to drive a ton of and not distracted so we do have a website it has advice excuse me it has advice for parents of new teen drivers and that is at drive it home dot org and again down to drive it home that org and I see I just see a question I think somebody wanted me to repeat the website for about our paper about hands-free risk that's at the brain at NSC org and there were a number of questions about if we will be recording this presentation and can have the content available afterwards and yes the presentation is recorded and it will be available on YouTube in I think with then either tomorrow or within a couple days and so you'll be able to share the presentation with others and we'll send a listen and email to you with the link to the to the YouTube posting when it's ready so it looks like we're at time or at two o'clock but like Deb said we'll be sharing this presentation with everyone it's been recorded it'll be on YouTube and then some folks had questions about whether or not we'll share the presentation we'll have the NSC presentation available to you shortly so if you registered for the course we can send it to you after this session is over but we wanted to thank everyone for being on the call and appreciate your time and I'm sorry we couldn't get to all the questions I know this is a popular webinar but hopefully we will be in touch afterwards and again because of this distracted driving awareness month if you are interested in getting more materials like Deb's presentation showed if you go to NSC org slash DD month that's the D mo n th you can get some distracted driving materials and those will be available even after April I think someone had asked that as well so thank you very much to our presenters Deb Trombley and dr. Paul actually and thank you to you all for joining us have a great day thank you for joining the webinar we appreciate your attention and participation in today's event to assist us in future webinars please fill out the short survey currently on your screen we'd appreciate it thank you again for attending the webinar and have a great day everybody