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they've been three revolutions in quantum theory the first revolution 1902 about 1970 something was the one you will learn about you know Max Planck Einstein photoelectric effect plunk blackbody radiation Einstein photoelectric effect the Bohr atom Schrodinger's equation Heisenberg matrix calculate ryx mechanics and Dirac an electron and then 5 min and Schwinger the Fineman diagrams quantum mode surnames all that stuff you learn about in school and how to calculate atomic physics solid-state physics the block you know the energy band Theory all that stuff and that's all correct that's quantum mechanics then starting according to David Kaiser my group of pirates renegade physicist starting around early 1970s to about now to that 2015 was according to the book oh where is that book yeah according to David kaisers book how the hippie save physics our little band of misfits we created the second quantum computer quantum information revolution because we were in fact I was already I did I sort of discovered a precursor in the Bell's Theorem in 1960 ok back in 1960 when I was an undergraduate I studied with Hans bethe who was the head of the theoretical physics division Los Alamos and also and I he was my tutor my senior year at Cornell and in the summer in the summer of 59 I guess it was I read David Baum's textbook quantum theory which is which is the book he wrote about board the Bohr Copenhagen interpretation and not-not-not his later hidden variable day this is just conventional quantum theory but in that book couple things is I think chapter 8 he talks about how the point of wavefunction is like is very like a like thought how things in quantum theory are similar to psychology the psychology of consciousness that's already in david bohm and by the way bone got this niels bohr this is actually an old idea it's not really a crazy idea in that Bohr Heisenberg but like new Heisenberg personally they were all kind of you know vague sort of way that the quantum wave function is has something to do with thought in fact Vigna and von neumann in london Fritz London they all have this idea that collapse that consciousness collapses the wavefunction so it's alright and this conscious fact the collapsing way from play there's some relationship the wave function to mental stuff then you have a James genes back in the trains I think maybe the 30s he said the universe is looking more and more like a great thought rather than like a great machine well what's he talking about the quantum waves so I'm quite okay and also when I was learning quantum mechanics in at Cornell I mean they didn't even think of information there was just like the wave function well probability may be yeah but they didn't get very deeply into the meaning of quantum theory just you know like shut up and calculate but also in in in David Bohm textbook he talks about the EPR experiment and he had changed it from particles from momentum and position correlations to you know stern Gerlach magnetic moment spin spin correlations which was a nice way but then so fill in so that kind of fascinating because hey this is kind of weird I mean well died after it but that's years after I'll get the timeline but the thing is no but then what happened was so I got the Brandeis I was I had a National Defense fellowship to Brandeis everything paid for a title for national defense and and while there I read across a paper on the Tao fate of puzzles and reviews of modern physics lines 1960 and and now they're talking about energy and it just limited anyway this contradicts relativity the CP on you know this kind of seems a continent relativity and um and I went to Sylvan Shui Burr and Stanley Destler and I said hey the what's going on here and they got very upset because I guess they didn't realize it themselves they said shut up basically shut up in calculate don't think about it and I said this has been poor but I was basically is beginning to think like this 1960 Bell did his thing in 1964 okay and and I start that pissed I actually quit my fellowship that's about two years I clicked the fellowship and when I was recruited by the CIA but into into my work for a place called tech ops and they were on route to Lexington Massachusetts around there on and they were doing you know work for the CIA on high resolution you know the satellite cameras you know for surveillance that kind of thing and while there I was a worthless guy George parent at home group of they were classical optics guys they worked with a meal wolf at the University of Rochester and classical optics maybe no much quantum theory so they hired me I was like 20 years or 21 years old to set to learn the other quantum ah I mean they got old lasers lasers was just coming in you know they had laser but it was very early there's no dismissed 1963 now by around 1963 the lasers and so they had been working on this and at I wrote my first paper for the Italian publishing new Volvo tremendo Italian Physical Society appropriate since my name is Italian so haughty and but it was on quantum mechanical correlation theory of black body radiation correlation image that yeah trivial thing today but back then nobody you know they and really know and they wanted me to work with Paul Roman to finish my PhD at Boston University with the guy named Paul Roman was part of a professor at particle or in any case I went back to Cornell and then I but I did a guy again the the intelligence services I guess manipulating and what happened was I was offered a summer job at Ford Philco Aero neutronics and put beach california back at night in this summer 63 that is amazing salary of a thousand dollars a month was regular yeah for twenty-one years old and so I cut the yellow you carry enough I could reduce travel to California anyway so so here I was about 22 23 years old living in Laguna Niguel you know with a within xk150 Jaguar from Hollywood sports cars you know young and good-looking and dating Hollywood starlets at the Billy Hills hotel and that this was also a this is also a you know a government security fort Philco air electronics and that's when I met Richard Fineman so because we used to go up to from Newport Beach up to Caltech and I didn't really know him fine there was at that at that point and finding is there in the hallway you know a beautiful indecision in the hallway and of those whatever and he's talking he's talking whole crowd about I'm talking about superfluid helium and coherence and stuff like that and we got to know each other and right away we kind of clicked and his uh that day his uh his car was in the repair shop you know so he said he has to he needs a lift as I said I'll give you this and then you know it sort of a disorder Stillman is Jaguar XK 150 black with white leather interior no top down and the spoke wire wheels and so he said so we got into the car and just said let's say if it took a little detour there's no hurry we go down Sunset Boulevard and he's you know flirting with girls and we don't we went into a topless bar no the whole thing so were those were exciting times but so then what happened okay finish my thesis at I was in the jolla UCSD also worked for the guy from UCR although I did all my graduate work at UCSD in La Jolla and I became a assistant professor I was about 27 at San Diego State okay and then the strangeness happens again and it turns out it was a CI anything oh yeah I should mention this that when Kennedy was assassinated I was at Ford Field Oh errand atronics and yell earlier he was and at that point then I volunteered to go into the CIA and I was interviewed they had Lee comes up to Westwood and there was spent several hours in a room with all the tape recorders going and you know and I never heard after that yeah we don't look I had security clearance working at Ford Felco and but then so now it's 19 when was it 19 okay well first of all in the city about 1966 I was contacted by the British and I spent a couple of summer's at Her Majesty's United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority at harm well the Kitab Amir Oxford and at that point I met I used to go down to Imperial College but Abdus Salam and the people of the hague the higgs field and the Higgs go-go I did Goldstone and after his gigs I met all these people you know and just spontaneous symmetry breaking around 1966 and then in 1971 those 19 yeah 1971 then then I went to birth deck and was like a postdoc work at Birkbeck College with David Bohm although at that time bomb was not into his hidden variable theory he had sort of forgotten about it in fact the guys that basil highly who was his assistant said he didn't even know whether I believe were together he didn't even know about the hidden variable theory that he did under with Einstein there on 52 he didn't know that both sides and a little bone was so you know cowed by the establishment because was considered sort of crackpot stuff that he didn't even talk about it back then it's only it was only later that basil highly you know got back into it and okay so so with Bohm and I also at that point I was with I took the twister Roger Penrose was also there and I and he was a young professor before he went to Oxford and so I took a civil month you know just a seven or two or three guys four guys five guys on twisters though I didn't understand much of it but okay alright so that was okay so then the weirdness happens I'm back at San Diego State from from bulb and I'm with this guy of the other sister provide with this guy Fred Alan wolf some of you may have that he's in what the beat bleep but Fred Alan wolf and I were we had a joint he was at he's an old he was associate professor I was an assistant professor and we had adjoining offices next to each other in the physics department and he gets a call and also we both got the boss who lovely you know fred was a very straight guy Bermuda shorts you know short hair maybe that was recently that was a galleon but but back then he's writing an austin-healey airforce contracts you know he was like I had worked at the all kinds of defense connection San Diego began Navy town the defense town and so but we both got divorced and we moved it together at a little apartment right at the edge of the San Diego State campus a you know the women it's sending a state I just got young gorgeous but at 32 years old so we're having good time and then Frank somebody gets a call from an old high school friend of his called Bob Tobin who's an artist who probably made a lot of money on the commodities market he from Chicago and Bob shows up okay and says hey listen the guys he wants to see face it because he had a he was so interested skiving laura geller this Israeli guy or ego is able to bend metal you know and this and that and and he had a book contract and also TV what contract would dutton him to write a book and wanted to know if all this weird bending metal with the mind a lot of stuff if that could happen how would one Howard business visit supernaturalism so that's always okay so then so right around this time two things happen Fred gets a phone call from Paris friend of his at the University of Paris for those atomic physics you know and they bought they invite him to come for a semester like a like it's somebody one of their guys was on sabbatical and you know they have like a teaching in his field and just to come for a couple of months to Paris at the same time he gets a another call from John Hastert was a head of the physics department at Birth Becca blur David Bohm is where I had been – saying they also had a thing there so he can commute back and forth between Paris and London you know he was like to teaching gigs right – good he was going to take a sabbatical from San Diego State simultaneous with that and for a night living there I get a call from Abdul Salam at that point Abdul Salam was the head of theoretical physics at the Imperial College in London and he was also director of the UNESCO International Atomic Energy Authority Institute for Theoretical Physics in Trieste Italy which was the meeting ground for Russians East Europeans member this is now 19 so there's the height in Cold War right and guys from India you know I'm not Middle East I mean all was the thing and Trieste is right on the border you know Aviva's Flavia back then so this was actually well known actually there's a there's a movie with a with Robert De Niro about the trainee or something it's about that the service I didn't I mean it's a similarity where the that Institute is mentioned and it is like a ground for all kinds of Cold War on both sides yellow entry because I was with these physicists in fact we were invited to – I went into Yugoslavia and look beyond at the nuclear physics Institute there fred was went into bulgaria and got into an affair with with the daughter of the head of the bulgarian secret service it was yeah it was a very case I later found this was all part of a CIA raishin this is when I got involved with the remote viewing and the CIA experiments with the regula Ingo Swann remote viewing and that led into the post quantum theory which explains all that stuff the point is in the post quantum theory the we have more information we have the final information and the additional information we want to know what happens in between some initial conditions some final condition it's like teleology okay and the very the the rules of doing quantum theory are change we now have a at the post quantum level it's not a statistical theory yet God does not play dice with the universe in post quantum mechanics Einstein was looking for this he's I do not believe God plays dice with the universe however what stopped him from realizing this was that he only believed in we taught in causation that past cause present effect he was not willing to consider as a reality as a possibility rather future causes of present effects okay I asked the question yeah how does the retrocausality principle and when you're rewinding that boundary condition how does that lead to the quantization of the gravitational field and describe no no but the point is you know you don't quantize about okay okay well I actually your court I don't know miss there's a question here so let let me get to this okay so normally in doing wandering quantum mechanics with hermitian operators in unitary time evolution for closed systems you have what are called hermitian operators and you have some kind of quantum wave function quantum state and you take it you want a statistical expectation value okay now I'm going to show you this is the post quantum mechanical I don't know what to call it it's no longer a statistical there's no statistics yet there's no there's no quantum state it's this is just a an individual particle individual system theory okay but this is you have something which I don't know what to call I'll call it the weak value because that's what that's what Yaqui are a lot of calls it so if I have some local operator that's defined at a point in space and time let's say a local operator I'll call that a carrot the state of a @x okay space with a subscript w okay the definition of it now is this after is your destiny back from the future state I is your history ordinary propagating forward in time and X you can think of F and I are like here and we're looking on a spacetime diagram this is time so history state there this is the future state F there and we want to know what happens at an X in between okay that's the problem okay so so this is how this is the Yaqui a harmonic definition it's this okay all right the typical using direct notation you all know that like so this is it there's none statistical God's not playing dice so the question now is how we get to know well note that if I use algebra in a product then it apart it's not statistically I'm going to just wait I'm going to show you statistics next step is statistics this is just something I can calculate this formally okay this is the this will be the Olga okay what this is physically okay good question basically this is if you were to do a weak measurements and there are techniques for doing that in the lab if you were to do a weak measurement of this observable a at the point X individual matter ideal and it's not an ensemble that's the thing you're not averaging over in solvent 6 added a single I can look at a single electron in those ion traps and things like that okay if you know just measure that say the position of that electron in di that single electron no statistics that this is what you would get this is this is this is what you what you expect to get alright now let me run again let me get back to what you're familiar with the familiar ground in order to do that you have to now add an axiom post quantum mechanics is a bigger theory it's okay think of geometry think of gianna Euclidean geometry has five axioms okay right so think of you're doing G homage was only the first for axiom you claim ok now you're coming to the fifth axiom what to do how many lines palates are given I pass through a point not on the line ok and you know you have some choice there and in fact that's how we got none including geology's right by changing it ok but now so if this is analogous to Euclid's fifth you know in terms of the logic of the theory you now introduce statistics as physical parts and actually like your code theoretical arms up okay so you assume that this is basically the born rule you assume that the probability the conditional probability between I and F is the but is the square of the of this you said that but now look how beautiful this is so now we're going to assume just what he said suppose we don't really know anything about the future okay all we know is the past and right so what we have to integrate over all the possible future conditions that's like try taking a trace of a partial trace of density matrix basically same idea okay so look what happens if we bubble now if we and we use that we wait it by the ball we'd assume now the born rule basically quantum mechanics right missing ball roll so just so if you just do the integral over F or all values of F this is what you get it's just algebra Dell and because of the orthonormal completeness of the final state it's 1 and you get this what what's happening well now now this is forward towards out and causality is no backward in time people do weekly declared in and out and all we have is the typical forward in time effect I happy about thats still not the expectation that we have to one more integration now normally when you're in quantum mechanics so you then integrate over X or overall X to get the you know the expectation in the state you integrate over X right that's what you do and so we use the orthonormality again and this is quantum mechanics so we have a beautiful very simple elegant how the bigger Theory pqm limits to what you're familiar with and everything that say that Remmy does if it is when does a squat in quantum mechanics then working at this level of statistical level but there is a hidden reality here now now yeah yeah so you know the domain of integration of s I mean how do you know the domain of integration of F well I'm assuming I just did it I am suing that everywhere so many rules the quantity that we have a complete set of states and if you make that either some I just sue miss let's do it you know you're not going to question that right you know I'm playing this completeness I'm assuming that the futures argued that the future waveforms are complete to the states on the sewage do you like that a subject but then if you don't like that then you better not like it for the past year because it's time symmetric so if you're assuming for one you gotta have it for the other any case I mean you could object to that but I don't think many people worry about that I mean it's beautifully this is there's a standard quantum algebra okay well yeah we are assuming that they're the future is a complete if you assume that in the past is a complete set of initial states that you could integrate over then by time symmetry which is which is basically something yeah it's the same as the future that you know the block you miss of the block universe of relativity it's basically site blocking differs you know what Einstein said the distinction between past present and future is a stubbornly persistent delusion or some like that that's a few key question question cuz there's all this might die oh no that's not obvious or not okay if you don't by bending then you have to come up with a new theory that's why that's your mitigate I am assuming that I be I don't think so because right now I've shown if you make that that's an assumption making an assumption okay making assumption but it's a standards assumption that a lot of people make and it's not like it's a far-out crazy assumption of assuming that what works in the past also works in the future that's part of the whole time symmetric retrocausality idea and if you assume that mathematically this is a rigorous derivation and it's simple yeah what mama Gunny selected some state sometimes isang for about meetings okay right now I'm just taking expectation I'm not doing transition just do you know the expectation value of an observable in it yeah this one so this is beyond ordinary ensemble average so yeah I'm not doing pretty big I'm not doing quantum jumps yet or anything like that that's you know I just want to show what we have some saved on how to state and run intercity understand some products called the to station back in theater welcome station yeah yeah so not okay in any case just look at the first just look at purely mathematically do you see the logical because this is here the mass given the assumptions then we could question the you know the what you're saying is just look at the inner product before any normed space anything so if your inner product is is the beaver Vader yeah yeah yeah right and and and in terms of what it means physically it has a physical meaning in terms of the weak measurements which is the whole experimental thing which is you know that to learn about some of the actual experiments measuring these sorts of things I'll give it I'll send the thing in email F from Steinberg is experimental physicist at the University of Toronto has all kinds of beautiful you know showing how this really is practical in the lab if you're doing a double slit experiment with an electron beam okay and you're sitting in the far field interference pattern okay those are strong measurements but if these experiments actually been done okay in the lab this is not hypothetical isma'il and what and then they do they do a series of these these sorts of things and what it shows you is the Bamiyan trajectories of the electrons going through the slit you know they're doing statistical yeah there you have to repeat the thing over and over you get a lot of measurements and that's what that's what this shows it actually shows the bold particle paths which for said you couldn't do and this experimental beer and they've done with photons to it so it's beautiful but you know I don't want to waste time we only have an hour you look at Ephraim Steinberg I'll send the references and you can see the details there's a lot of stuff they're actually doing very precision optical measurements with this technique that you couldn't do before even higher resolution beating the uncertainty principle kind of stuff from it this is a practical thing this is a practical importance for technology not just theory okay all right now let me get to I want to now I want to go more about the post quantum theory this is new physics to some beyond anything you're used to okay someone had it right no need to compete for configuration space to handle entanglement okay that's a big mathematical convenience bomb pilot wave theory made relative is made relativistic using a variation on a kuranes retro causal weak measurements in the lagrangian based action principle of einstein's block universe of Minkowski block universe okay ah now this is the new stuff that you guys don't know really anything about because you haven't this is a new thing you haven't been taught it the problem is that nobody understand nobody in the textbooks every one of you have learned you've never had a course in Bohm pilot-wave theory and you've only had the Copenhagen interpretation was the only quantum waves there are no hidden variables okay and even if you've had a course in Boehm pilot wave theory you still won't know this because they don't know it's a hit it's a result that's been kind of glossed over it's in Bowman Haley and your undivided universe pecked but what happens is that even in the bone pilot wave theory the quantum potential of the quantum information theory of the wave modifies the motion of the particle but it violates the action-reaction principle the philosophical there is no feedback no feedback of the particles motion back on the guiding wave that's guiding it so in visit J let's think of a philosophical generalize action reaction event so that the bone theory wandering and this is a two of ordinary quantum mechanics I don't require max the wave acts on the particles but there's no feedback control loop okay so what Jack saying is the explained is for me last night is that all theory is deterministic but this when you incorporate feedback loops in both directions it cannot be deterministic now that's an important point keep this and I'm going to keep coming back to that point all right so now but let's think back to relativity theory special relativity does not have gravity what special relativity does there the space-time geometry determine influences the motion of a particle that doesn't feel you have a neutral test particle a neutral no charge test particle it follows a geodesic in the flat space-time geometry so that's geometry there is like a pilot wave is analogous to a pilot wave you know and and of course the geodesic is trivial because it's a string you know what you learn in elementary physics straight line at constant speed no acceleration okay so there but but but if you have large concentrations of mass energy it doesn't modify the space-time is rigid the space-time is rigid in special relativity that's gravity is the effect of action reactions you affected the reaction of mass energy back on the geometry and it took that plus the equivalence pencil over you know the Einstein needed the equivalence principle he needed action reaction and he also needed the formalism the tensor calculus which he got from Marcel Grossman rod Sutherland is my Marcel Grossman he ever give me the math that I because I had the idea but for 20 years but took 20 years of choice before someone did this all right so Einstein action reaction organizing principle formulated as part of the none statistical post quantum week Lagrangian acting the I waved to its be able Zoar hidden variables now let me say one other thing that's very important to quantum computing theory because you all know about the no-cloning theorem and the no signaling theorem that entanglement cannot be used as a direct command control communication channel you always be or say in terms of coding theory you need some kind of classical key to unlock you could put complicated information none locally or you know globally in the entangled network of particles you have information there messages meaning all your code words and your symbol of the language yeah yeah but locally if I hit save I would make it real simple I just have to two correlated particles no matter what I do over here I won't be able to see that wiggle over there well I see here locally is randomness locally look uncontrollable rant local randomness so that I willing here I cannot send a message to the guy Alice by wiggling here cannot send the message to Bob until she also sends something else is quantum teleportation quantum time so she sends you know a classical key to unlock to decode the way it looks random but if you had that you know given the key you can you can do you can get the message and that's the whole quantum cryptography the Chinese by the Chinese are building this big thing they don't realize them under be able to hack the quantum is the possibility we can actually hack into supposedly quantum cryptographic networks they are they are the Maginot Line of that's that's why the CIA of course is the NSA a really interesting what I'm doing so the Russians by the way I've been interviewed by Putin's people – that's a whole other story this is this is hot stuff okay now so the point is that in the quantum limit gives this is not all there is to go from post quantum theory back to one your equality there's one other assumption which is not obvious here but there's more you have to you have to take the the action-reaction part of the new Lagrangian that Selim wrote down that actually action part has to go to zero and when that goes to zero you get back to no signalling you get back to point all the ordinary quantum teleportation quantum dense coding you know all I know that's the reason the reason you cannot Precog the reason you cannot know the future the reason that you can integrate here this sort of gets back to this question the reason you its believe you're justified in doing the integral over app is because you're in the limit of zero action-reaction and in that case you have no you cannot decode messages from the future back one-time message that will mean that all the people who have precognitive dreams and tons of remote viewing you know that that would work unless the only reason does work is because of action reaction when you have actually action then you can do it and you no longer do the integrals because there is a particular F you can actually perceive you see that you have knowledge of a Fernet that's some action reaction alright so that's very important so in post quantum theory you can use entanglement as a communication system and we know from the communication can be anything could be to be from the past to the present from the future to the present or between button looks like fast of light they could be separated you know faster line whatever you want because the zig zag it doesn't doesn't matter so this is big this is extremely important all right yeah are you familiar with the wheeler DeWitt equation what yes of course yeah how does that relate to what you're talking do we win ok good question actually and there's a they're actually good there's a whole bunch of papers this guy named Sheldon Goldstein at at Rutgers University and he's talked about the weird the weird equation gives a loser Larry it gives the simple problem of time having the time and that's because they neglected the hidden variable they'd like the moment the bomb picture is no problem in the bone picture the quantum information fields are time independent but the hidden River which is the three-dimensional classical space-time space geometry space geometry evolve since I was like the particle moves through time and that problem because the reason for all all these guys doing quantum gravity really do it equation and all the standard stuff they just don't know they just have their own physical picture so they have these problems with no longer which are pseudo problems okay so so it's all basically all right very good I mean yeah because if you assume they're no pie you certainly no particles or no classical Jim Jim Metro dynamic fields and then you're gonna get in trouble in the fact they do so you know but it's the problem is trivially solved no longer it's not a nun problem ok let's get on oh no I want to be able okay I just want to show you a few more all right now this is important you this is all now this all in subtle it's papers you read escapism I'm just like extracting a few key ideas so when you read some of those papers you may have to study this stuff because it's unfamiliar way of thinking this is for particle quantum mechanical particle post point again this is the for a particle like a point particle this is it's for velocity everything special is relativistic special this is the actual classical velocity of a let's say a point particle if it's an extended product we're talking about the center of a at the point like center of mass motion neglecting the internal degrees of freedom okay so this is that this and you have to read if I go into details this is the what looks like the way the noin Airy quantum mechanics except that's what this new it's this kind of object it's a weak value this is the pilot wave current density okay but but it's nonspecific at this level that we're working at this level but we haven't done any more we haven't integrated out the future this is all now post quantum theory so this is the week this is the post quantum value of the electron current the four vector so and this is it this is it you know the fourth condition it's invariant magnitude you know this is a you know if you take J alpha if you ro 0 1 0 Rho 0 is the square root of J alpha J alpha ok doesn't stay in the thing this is this is what you normally give the lawsuit now it turns out this factor and this is beautiful I see this addition Sullivans now genius so he doesn't quite realize the physical significance I think what he's done I I think he was contacted by you know he's he's a sleepwalker tizzy no you good this quantity this factor is part is a factor in the action reaction Lagrangian ok and when it is zero you have to take this you have to assume this is zero in order to get back to quantum mechanics okay but when it's zero what is it when it's zero it's to be Broglie guidance equation it's a guy well physically what it means is that the particles are constrained and okay think the gradients of the think of uh of the the way the quantum waves think of them as a hydrant like quantum hydrodynamics there's a fluid okay there's a theater the fluid so these are the gradient flows the gradient flows of the fluid and the particle is trapped in the grooves and the gradient grooves okay that the particle velocity is is how many of you have seen no super fluid theory with like the velocity the super fluid velocity is the gradient of the phase over em you know a h-bar you've seen you it's like this is like in a particular case this family case of this equal to two zero and that color response is your back action now this is very important conceptually because that means it's only under those conditions where there's no action reaction between waves and particles that the particles are truly hidden that's why you know that's why you get away in doing correct calculations and getting the right energy eigenvalues of atoms of doing the transition probabilities the s-matrix the four sections all that stopped works only using waves because they're in that limit the the the extra degrees dynamical degrees of freedom kosovo be able by by john bell or hidden except they're not really hidden hidden variables by bomb that they really are hidden it there under the rock they're there so to speak under this skirt of the waves they're trapped in there but the new thing they're no longer they break out and they become directly observable and say this is very very important and by the way why white plus or minus get guess what this is also very important because it turns out that and this is kind of well known and even involve before all this stuff it sound like if you try to decline Gordon equation in the Bohm theory in this quantum little bit without the action reaction even what happens is that the part to Steve streamline flows these streamline flows don't break outside the light cone they become fast and light tachyonic and also and but but not like finding that where it's a point thing you know it's more like string theory weird curbs gently and a game goes back within time okay and then so the plus and the minus taken to account in the week med Nelly you actually see this in prison week if you do with measurements you can see the particles going faster light or backwards in time even it's not the same it's not the same as as Fineman where the where the anti particle propagating fall at a time is a part is your particle going back go jump naked imagine it's different from that okay so further and but what happens but this has been somewhat explains this beautifully Bible you have to study here you have to do some work in homework to really get it he shows that when you do if you only look at this strong measurement result this anomalous effect cancels out in the statistics but if you do the weak measurements you can actually see it so exact and said it's actually observable in principle is I mean experimentally it's not it's not okay so that's a nice thing alright so where's what I just did with the control up all right so now almost there okay so okay first out here for example HIPAA oil declines equation this is the Dirac equation for a neutral particle this is spin one-half direct equation the left hand side is your normal directing single particle Dirac equation only for you know the history states this propagating forward is up there'll be a there'll be a corresponding equation for the final state there are two equations I only wrote down you could imagine the other one okay here's the new effect here's the new effect this all the five just read this paper I'm not going to finalize it here's the new effect this is the source term this is the feedback control term this is it this is it so and this is this called the source term if if you if you look into ordinary books they say well quantum mechanics doesn't have any the wave functions and have sources here has a business the fixed business what clearly likes to call your feedback and control time there it is that's it mathematically for the Dirac equation no very precise okay and when you take this as you know we haven't put charges and vector potentials that but you set this thing well the zero you get back to linearly direct theory okay so now we could start doing quantum field theory that's like by the way what's going to happen finding diagrams right fine and die off Lima dagger is only for waves you know particles these are extra degrees freedom and this is a problem this could be a research problem for something there's an address it this is how does the finding divert Matic technique get modified by these new degrees of freedom okay that's going to change this new stuff going there's going to be new kinds like this be a generalized finding diagrams that will reduce the undefined and diagrams when when this back action this is the back action back activity term when that zero you get back to the old so in order to get ordinary quantum theory and quantum field theory you have to both assume this is zero and also of what you think that's consistent when this is we're oh you don't know the future if this is not 0 this thing breaks down you can't do you can't do the integral you have to use this directly this is directly observable of course now the good question is when does it not become zero let's see yeah when there's nothing to okay now this is from this is a this is Dirac equation for the pilot wave with the source term from the part from the actual particles this is your and this is a feedback control loop between the waves and the particles there's a sub there self-organizing there's no Morgan I think I think this is just what you want this is what we all want okay now and here it is for the director he has Kline going to do Spenny what you know you do spin to you to grab you whatever you want to go okay this is the action principal Fineman trigger and with the yellow few extra dynamical degrees of freedom it's all very standard mainstream stuff lagrangians action okay so let's go down okay well here just defines essences I'm just applying that you see this on your own on your computer it's all in the references let's go down again ah now look it's something else that something else the Dirac equation tells how the particle changes the motion of the waves of the direct spinners but there's also how the waves with the particles that's you know that's yeah this is dynamical equation for the particles and look it looks kind of like the Lorentz force a little bit like the Lorentz force all right look at this see here's your dizzy Louise your velocity doesn't stand this looks very much like classical electrodynamics but it's not it's post quantum theory right it's beautiful you give you look into computer simulations and you know if you solve problems and this is the acceleration you have the proper acceleration of the particle you know it's mixed with the way and this is this is like a gradient flow yeah gravy if long and this is unlike a lot of torsion what are your curl like the Cassini but I yeah yeah yeah a lot of people think that quantum gravity theory will be here is a fun yeah I want to say yeah I'm quantum supercomputer yeah well yes actually had that idea many years ago but yeah of course yeah the answer is yes I agree with that but but this is another that's something you add the two so in the Dirac case you have now a complete set of dynamics you have how the this is you need this to get your feed now you have the feedback loop that could be calculate again idea people do know how to do Mathematica I can make it sit down start doing problems I can't I don't really exactly you are me on why a feedback loop would necessarily be non-deterministic yes I know that's clear because whoops perhaps the fun time that's because okay let me let me slow okay I will let me get back to that let me finish this to let me get back that's an important issue this is that's a this is an appointment this goes to Penn roses stuff on strong AI it's that's there with artificial intelligence that's a key question I will come back let me just see if I do anything else I want to talk about here so now you have two two sets of equations and this is being quite the tooth equations together are a feedback control self-organizing loop of proposed quantum mechanics okay okay so the pilot continuity equation now has a new source term therefore the board oh this is a nothing okay there is you get that you can get the time okay if we go back to the Dirac equation if we separate the Dirac equation into real and imaginary parts okay then I think it was really one one of those times like a Hamilton toby looking equation for the phase okay this is an ordinary cloud you know it gets more complicated post quantum mechanics with sibling and then the other equation is your continuity and flow equation so it looked like that's not quite that because this is that you know this is the that equation I wrote for the particle with the curl and all that that's a separate equation from the continuity equation this is okay but the pilot-wave content now this is very important this is non unitary time evolution has to like dissipative structures okay but that's biology we're beginning to get into biology now the pilot excited equation now has a new source term therefore the born probability current density flow which is waves only is no longer conserved because there's the new degrees of freedom it's a reservoir the reservoir off the wave flow from these variables it's like it's like it's like a pump it's like a reservoir okay the time evolution is not unitary as in pumped open dissipative structures okay this is actually pretty pretty cool the ferries also are awesome theories not highly nonlinear it's highly nonlinear because of the adaptive self-organizing to a relation positive wave and it's via both okay now you can actually see this is highly it's like general activities nonlinear this is a nonlinear post quantum theory and by the way there general Tim Steven Weinberg another people show as soon as you have non-linearity in this sense in quantum theory signaling becomes possible entanglement now becomes okay the same entanglement is a important quantum computing resource in quantum information resource it's even now more important because now it's directly locally decodable keyless Heelys locally decodable and tangle bit signaling it's happening in the brain that's a tapping between the neurons and you know in the brain see the third there is exchanging information obviously if you can do that be better than not being able to do it right okay all right so okay so okay this this okay okay no violation of Einstein's special relativity this is right here okay okay and again the action reaction unties the Bevo's that pairs are no longer coincide with the pilot wave streamlines alright so well you know and by the way so you read this on your own computer so in the references okay it's all up there on the web so let's go to find out during the other way and there okay so okay so I think it's I can okay post planetary is the quantity in general a series of special relativity so what happened in general pivoting you elected the fourth rank remind Christoffel curvature tends to vanish everywhere that's basically special relativity okay here you let be back the you somehow or other suppress the action-reaction self-organizing loops between waves and particles and that's what everybody has been stuck and that's their little box that the conventional quantum community are in that box especially bellman Huggett okay and they're in that box of this open Pandora's Box okay I will only then probably say beyond the vast majority 100% of the experts working in quantum computing the resistible are not considering this and indium if this back reaction is real then I don't see how you can successfully approach the limit you know really many exploiting quantum mechanics for the purpose of quantum computing without considering this if it's real it's definitely real be real and what do we have to do though we have a big opportunity here as you know I think that we have without getting into the whoo Twilight Zone stuff because Google all of them whatever who's working like mike rizzo IBM Google Apple and try to gate are totally clueless and they're going to go around it still do some interesting things but they don't have it we have it and there's and and the thing is this all these systems are making their is done with them well we have to we have to make think of a laser does not reside late you have to date we have to make open dissipative structures you know what happens to the laser you need a population inversion to get the coherence okay and so you have to keep pumping until you pass a certain threshold and then you get this coherent lazing effect in a similar way here in the living system they're open dissipative structures and the metabolism all the chemical here whatever I don't even know you guys probably you probably know it even better than either something's biological detail but that German guy he knows almost nothing to get him and and this is foreign of Herbert product for this who I knew I actually worked with him at UCSD he he has a model of a biological membrane okay and is just what they are just a bunch of electric dipoles wrapped in a cylinder this is old I mean stuff okay nothing says it but it's but it's being pumped with energy external pump energy and he shows it reaches a certain critical threshold a pulse is like a laser coherent the phone on vibrate the the vibration oh the dipole the dipole become a coherent like you feel here an excitation wait long-range wave so you're clear signal video there are like elementary collective modes of all these little dipoles you know they're like they're like felt like phonons are two crystal vibrations needs to be yeah and it shows that and that's very important so the point is we can start to building stuff we can start making nanotechnological models of these member of membranes pocket of energy and even take their even take your quasi crystals to pump it with energy maybe that make into this yes you have to get far away from thermodynamic equilibrium and these effects are going to come into effect you see which magnified to comment very supportive of what you're saying but so we have an object to explore which is which is an empire wave so we most of you notice that I'll say it briefly so we take e8 because we want to recover those gauge symmetry physics we project it to the else or slow and quasi crystal in four dimensions now there is a a an object it's not exactly like Einsteins block universe space-time any any one of the Fibonacci chains that composes that four dimensional quasicrystal when you do what we do which is we take a three-dimensional slice of it which means that you have different one-dimensional quasi crystals that have cut through the four dimensional object so so then we take that object that three dimensional slice or subspace of the four dimensional quasicrystal and you have to understand it even though it's a three dimensional slice its fibonacci chains we're participating in running through multiple time slices if you will in the eight dimensional space now that three dimensional thing which crosses different times is compounded with our with our four dimensional related rotation in free space so in other words in the qsn you have these one-dimensional lines that are natively part of a one dimensional quasicrystal that ran through multiple time slices right and so anyway so then presents a quasi crystal and a fundamental thing about pluggy crystals is the Empire and the special density of beams of the tiles in the glassy crystal drop in density with distance so as you animate out these quasi particle patterns in the qsn by faizon codes which is essentially your your language legal inflation's on the space on the denser possibility space and once you make patterns quasi particle patterns like that in the computer and understand those patterns algebraically what you have is an object called an empire wave and it's it's complex not not as not necessarily as in complex numbers its complex and whatever it is let's see this is a this is a fact that there's an empire wave we have to figure out how to use Empire waves interacting with one another quantum mechanically or it will not behave deterministically it will have the Empire wave the empire wave of two particles is going to influence one another furthermore the Empire wave of a single electron is going to self interact with the electron let me get there what were you listen for the Empire excites so the Empire wave is very very analogous to bones pilot-wave where it is a system of a wave involves idea to system of a wave and a particle interacting where the wave guides the particle and and the particle can even influence the way but we've always had one big problem with BOMs idea which is that it's deterministic and in ours it can't be deterministic yeah okay down let me explain all that okay that's okay what determinism mean this gets back to Roger Penrose if you read the emperor's new mind in all his popular books he talks about this the question is now even in bio is consciousness deterministic or company is it computational or you know all the AI programs right now they are computational obviously they using classical computers even things quantum to do is I think this they still love exactly there's no artificial consciousness yeah yeah but okay wait but let me tell you what of what what does it what does deterministic determinism basically means the same thing to me as an algorithm okay or is compute of computable together with a deterministic algorithm even if it's stuck a stick it doesn't make the hell of a difference to point the essential difference is that think of a Turing machine okay Turing machine sorry machine right turn a classical Turing machine Highschool Turing machine it's step by step by step one direction time it's you know maybe so even quantum even quantum statistics even quantum quantum Turing machines will have the same limits this as so okay what's happening here in the post quandary with the back reaction is that both the future and the past are influencing what's happening there and what's happening in the present is self-organizing cuz it's getting you know both things the his equations show exactly in detail how it happens and that transcends that transcends determinism it's not only that but what it is it's just it's like you had this in your video it's a self-consistent you've been talking it's a deal it's it's a looping whe has she said it was like step off yet I once feel I want to be so very suggestive clean definition of determinism by by a con way which is determinism is decline there is an event which is strictly determined by the past event right right right I was right and that's that's the one the true here but let me take something even more exciting something more exciting than that how many of you have heard the world hologram daily how many of you have heard of Susskind and ER equals EPR Oh fine you know it's really with that right well if you look at my book this crazy cartoon book that sold hundreds of thousands of copies and influenced Hollywood movies like Back to the Future I'm the guy from you know back to the future I'm the guy I'm the crazy time-travel scientist I was working that I do Coppola in all his Lucas and Spielberg in the 70s and you know it's just so ah yeah I'm not yeah I think I'll know hey guys all your hair yeah no no my gosh no okay to remember how that movie opens the first one memorably a Michael whatever is a male on the surfboard yeah yeah Michael Fox and with that with the big loud speakers you'll meet this guy Kimbra Prada was my sidekick at the time and he had we're living in North Beach and he was loving this hotel he had these huge speakers it needs to play rock music and the entire North Beach Grant Avenue we're here for about two or three blocks around and Lucas and Spielberg and comatose a subway Tivoli and they would hear this so you know I've been laughing there there and then Cameron he was he was really good-looking guy he was a navy veteran but he looked like Don Johnson yeah I mean yeah we could I mean movie star looks anyway like I had Navy SEAL train even come up on the short pants a little bicycle but they took him Kim everybody knew that Kim and Karen they took him lined the bike that became Michael Fox riding a surfboard and butt-blasting you see that's why that all came for him that's you know the hippies safe that's all and hippies a physics so it was all right so what was I talking about oh yeah the article PPR okay in my crazy book space-time and beyond I have the beginnings of the ER equals EPR I say hey look me up online here we have quantum entanglement you know EPR and then we have wheeler observe remember we love quantum gravity these wormholes okay and they somehow they must be dual aspects I didn't you know tell you it's in the book they must sound helping connect in some deep way now I didn't you know there was a primitive thing now only recently okay now here's the thing oh okay now I need I need that picture I need the you know the references the references I'm serious about year there's EPR because what happened sorry that this is this is beautiful d when you have back reaction when you have entanglement missile messaging that is the EPR right but it's singling APR what does that mean in terms of the wormholes there traversable wormholes particles can get through so it turns out okay now it is recognized if you impose quantum theory it's corresponds to particles moving back through traversable wormholes little time machines that corresponds to what Seth Lloyd at MIT and me the David Deutsch at all the stuff about if you have closed timelike curve computing it's definitely none deterministic but it's super powerful okay and right away okay so we have see them right here the prime crystal Frank books yes yes hope we can do odd because the time to time quasicrystals to pump the blood energy and we're going to get this always everything you want the so the point is that so the point is that we could we've caught the computers here the old high school computers the operating 1 billion time and as Penrose points out and in terms of the mathematics they occupy a very small degree of solvable problems you know Penrose is doing everything Taylor says that is right okay then you have quantum accuses computers quantum computers supposed to be more powerful than classical appears right that's the whole people things they cracked it cannot do but they haven't done that yet they ever done right but I'm talking about that surge this is like the third revolution suppose quantum the post quantum computer can do things that a quantum computer cannot do and it solves NP equals P I mean you know it's computing back from the future and there are all kinds of papers by the way you know there's a whole bunch of literature about ctc computing it has they're more powerful than quantum computing or forward in time okay so that's what we have here because he has to equal dpr okay where's this let me just show you something I want to now get back to so yeah the horizon picture yeah okay now I'm going to give you a picture of the conscious universe okay okay okay all right now look this diagram comes from the PhD thesis of a an Australian girl woman tomorrow Davis she worked with the peace with babies you know PW Paul Davies and I know yeah Paul Davies and this is the 2004 this is on page see I've modified a little bit it okay what this is what she did what she did at the time she said all the best information from the standard cosmological model they knew about dark energy them you know but the sitter space and all that and and and she did a computer simulation of the universe but this is like a Penrose conformal diagrams not quite a it's not it's Penrose like it's been formal this is conformal time right conformal time and from the dark energy density you can compute that in our actual observable universe okay even though it's infinite proper time corresponds to a finite conformal time given the debut now given the observable data the energy density of dark energy machine you've got read up these beautiful things that you want to reward for by the way okay so that corresponds about 64 64 billion years of conformal time from the beginning of the universe to the end to the end to the end of the universe in a certain sense now let me give you a physical picture proper time what is proper to proper time is what you measure with a spring right that's proper time so have what about 10 rows of conformal time it's not it's a mathematical via the stereo therefore whatever he does you know beautiful map but physically had a simple explanation physically all it is is you have two mirrors and they're there in the Hubble flow the rest you know they're kobu like cocoa moving this is the comoving this there's the Hubble flow you know the universe is expanding the space is expanding but it's also accelerating in this picture it's accelerating the dark energy anti-gravity accelerating and so you have the two mirrors they are locally at rest in the Hubble flow and you're exchanging light signals between so you can see as it as a further part so takes longer so you can see and the way happens you get even infinity into the infinite spring time is a finite mirror time they all conform America okay one of the important thing now you learn special relativity is no absolutes simultaneity and you also learned there's no absolute less frame right that's specially locally locally remember in Jeff special on theory is a local tangent space limit of the global general relativity okay but you also learn about spontaneous broken symmetry right you know that in ferromagnets and crystals in quasi crystals both space and time what you're doing you're spontaneously breaking down a dynamical symmetry in the ground state and this company's ground state the ground state no longer obeys the symmetry haven't violated the theory because the dynamic will be action is still invariant into all your symmetries but the particular solution the ground state is not okay that's a ferromagnet sorts of crystals are both crystals and gwazi crystals are all examples of spontaneous broken symmetry and by the way then the superfood super days broken symmetries what the superfluid vacuum that's spent eight bits of oratory it's spontaneous broken symmetry the Lagrangian the theory itself dynamics is still invariant but this particular so now in our standard valve because Molly we have absolute rest frame I mean that preferred we do have a preferred global frame global it is the frame in which if which the Doppler shift you know it's the Doppler its maximum that the the blackbody radiation the cosmic radiation is maximally isotropic in all directions in the sky of the tire for pi things it's got you if you if you see that there's a asymmetry you see there's a blue shift here a little register if you see a symmetry you know you are moving at a velocity relative to the Hubble flow which is spontaneous broken symmetry general activity okay so you actually have a vehicle measurable definition of absolute rest at that level also you have you also have absolute I'm you have the time for the Big Bang and how do you measure that it's a temperature of the blackbody radiation right so that's so so for example we could have a starship we have a saw gate to a big traversable wormhole and and the clay goes out to one of the excellent habitat will exoplanets Bedell and Max come on to khalipa race you guys screwing they go through the Stargate and it takes your partner that mainly takes you five minutes you through the wormhole to get there and you're there but we could still compare we know we have an absolute global something because all you have to measure your measure your local black body temperature and I measure my body out if they really know what kind of simultaneous you know but well also know if yours is cooler than mine you're in my future suppose you're an immortal God and you live forever okay and this is the moment of inflation the Big Bang this is you know your world line throughout time infinite world like this is immortal God okay and and then these this this thing here this is the Omega Point that was at the Alpha point it's all observed at dependent see if you moved you know different observers what habits look somewhat different this is called this thing here the P aren't that's called our future to sit or dark energy horizon okay because the universe because space is accelerating into expansion is slowing down and then she get out paces light signals so that this is a boundary we cannot ever no matter where we are we can never see beyond the horizon future horizon isn't it currently outpacing life well no way but I know what terrible right here this we're late here what that's us that's us yeah right now there is it was a full election back to the west now yeah or no ok blaming space there's no limitation on the speed of the Spanish in space it's only particles moving within space yeah yeah everything is well I don't know well I'm going to show how you'd measure that but the point or light is the speed there are little light tones in here and no particles go fast like except their quantity all this let's not get into that because it's a side issue it's important but it's I – I'd want it's taking away from the key point okay so this is this is what's called our future horizon similarly there's also a past particle that's the blend of past particle horizon okay and now in the past pot see here we can if we have something here we can see we can't see anything but when it goes well actually now we can't see here but let's look at this one oh I have to imagine one one like here one here you know sort of thing like that okay since I'll pass by so so this is this is a sandwich it's called the boundary between our future event horizon and our past particle edge that's our observable universe with light signals okay you can never see outside nobody could ever see these regions here with light signals we live at the speed of light now if you had wormholes that camille the punch that's different just talk about conventional astronomy okay all right now however now look you see here we're here here's our future life here's our future light tone the light travels at 45-degree angles in this conformal diagram okay so we could be getting information from this point back to us and here we could be getting information from here you know from us okay but now here's the point in the actual physical space this point is really a two-dimensional closed surface we're inside we're at the center of the surface so to speak okay so two spheres surface but according to Seth Lloyd at MIT the black hole computer guy and all the stuff that and because of the Hawking the Hawking entropy area horizon all that black hole thermodynamics and this involves also the ER to see EP our whole universe again here's the idea that is that this here that sphere use you know now where the center of is a quantum computer right exactly oh well okay going through that saw well that's something that these guys are only thinking surface they don't even take it they even thought about thickness and that's what since uni okay thickness but let's forget about the thickness yet just let's talk about the circle okay well maybe no is it's just wait just wait this way okay yeah yeah but let's not this is I want to stable focus like a laser here you're going off-topic it's an interesting I agree but let's just stay on this track okay try to make a point that none of you realize okay that is that so this thing is a computer now according to the hologram the Susskind Bible any sauce can work together Cornell back in the city according to these guys it's a conformal field theory on the horizon you know it's controllable fear of the EPR correlation the conformal field theory and I think they their connection to quasi crystals can form on whatever but yeah it could maybe a quasi crystalline lattice on the horizon start at the plants kale absolutely I agree with that that's probably that's it it's happening there I agree with that and also it's very high energy radiation but it gets red shifted by time it reaches us so those so this is how you get down from the high energy point out to new cell biology so you don't want to this is very very important and so it's a computer but if it's a post clamp the action react if it's a post point of computer and I'm saying it's a contractor had enough time to get it this it's a conscious commute reason being that in assuming that quantum pilot-wave are quantum information is thought field not necessarily conscious in other words if you ask so james jeans looks more about the universe great thought rather than a great machine well he he only gives Susan Koeppen Hawkins both universes both are great so identical enter machine and you told you it's both like look yeah what's both because that's the bone picture but the point is that the only here's the thing if you ask what is there in physical reality that corresponds to thinking the thought the mentality it's the quantum voyage that's it you assume that that's or not so just wait please says code theoretic action let's assume let's see where it takes us an arms on educated guess educated guess and it's the same that Bohm and boring they all had it in a way they just could clearly say it the way I'm saying it okay if we make that assumption what is consciousness conscious is the back reaction the signal the environment will signal the back reaction the source term in those equations you know it's just like a forward meaning dad I've been throwing both legs yeah that's also for yeah all that is there already and it's like you know with a battery of what both these differences are important right let me ask vote say with what what we are experiencing in our inner thought is how the material world is changing the patterns in our thought wait now what our minds are what this mind is it's a coherent and actually could be the masculine history it's going both ways now it's an advanced destiny coherent field it's a hinge like a Higgs field yeah it's like over you know it's a spontaneous broken series called here long-range coherent that's the binding problem you know and so we have two of them the history one is our memories that's our memories off okay now and the advancer that's where we that's our creativity it's a vision literally there's all precognition right so and that's and that's I Mossad says how do I write I don't know I just hear it remembering forward remembering fall backwards over batteries memory memory back from the future that's how all creative people do it I mean whenever I never know whether they're right it just happens right that's what anybody artists I mean you know when when Michelangelo was doing the stone it was just a it was like who's taught you the toughest power telling you what to do so this is it I've just given you the mystery this is the final secret of the Illuminati that was
als ich heute morgen zur arbeit gefahren bin da ist etwas blödes passiert mein auto hat im kreisverkehr plötzlich eine vollbremsung hingelegt das hätte es eigentlich nicht tun dürfen weil alles frei war das liegt aber daran dass mein auto naja teil automatisiert fährt wie weit die technik in diesem bereich ist vielleicht auch wie weit die juristerei da in diesem bereich ist besprechen wir in diesem video [Musik] hallo ich mit christian solmecke rechtsanwalt und partner der kölner medienrechtskanzlei wilde beuger & solmecke und ihr seht mich hier in etwas ungewohnte atmosphäre ich habe mich in ein labor begeben nämlich in das labor von philipp hallo philipp philipp hat den youtube-kanal breaking lab und da erklärt ihr alles rund um technologien macht aber auch experimente vielleicht sagst du erst mal was zu dem youtube kanal was geht da so ab wir bauen uns verrückte sachen aus alltagsgegenständen so eine hydraulische presse aus ein paar spritzen kann man ein iphone mit verbiegen und wir programmieren künstler intelligenz wir machen so ein bisschen von allem was hauptsache naturwissenschaften hauptseite naturwissenschaften damit sind wir beim thema du bist promovierter informatiker und deswegen bestens geeignet dass wir hier heute mal ein paar technische themen rund ums autonome fahren regeln das was ich hier ganz kurz sind für mich leute die drucker installieren wir nennen und software engineers oder computer software engineering da fängt ja aber dann ist mein kollegen richtig was schief gelaufen hat die software engineers jedenfalls hätte mit meinem auto ja heute morgen keine vollbremsung in einem komplett leeren kreisverkehr hinlegen sollen ist es so dass wir eventuell die software noch ein bisschen zu früh auf die menschheit loslassen kannst du das so sagen das ist tatsächlich ein bisschen mein verdacht also ich glaube jetzt ich vermute du fährst ein gutes auto ich glaube die deutschen automobilhersteller diesen tendenziell eher ein bisschen zu konservativ eingestellt das ding ist aber dass das thema selbst von der autos so ein heißes eisen ist da gibt es so viele player da gibt es natürlich die großen firmen dann gibt es die ganzen zulieferer continental und co dann gibt es eine million gefühlt start ups die sich mit diesem thema selbst fahrende autos befassen ja angefangen es gibt bei uns in deutschland artisan sie tu münchen liebe grüße gibt es einige leute in großbritannien kämen schluckt wave es gibt außer ex in san francisco 17 asien eine ganze menge hat ganz viele start-ups die teil probleme lösen dann gibt es andere firmen von denen man es erst gar nicht erwartet hätte aber wo ist eigentlich total sinn macht über lift diese ganzen mobility start-ups müsste man eigentlich noch theoretisch sagen bei denen die befassen sich ja auch mit selbstfahrenden autos weil sie schon alleine riesigen datenmenge haben und dann gibt es noch leute wie google ja die midway moore ihre eigene auto mobil sparte jetzt gerade ausprobieren also bot online es gibt sehr sehr viele player und das natürlich die frage wer hat die nase vorn wer hat als erstes das level 4 auto auf der straße wer hat als erstes die automatische soundso funktionen und da ist wie du schon sagst mein verdacht ein kleines bisschen das dann manchmal vielleicht ein bisschen verfrüht sachen features gelauncht werden einfach nur um zu präsentieren wir sind noch schneller also da muss man natürlich sagen es gab relativ wenig unfälle da die sind dann zwar sehr populär geworden ich kann nur aus meinem alltag sagt das ist noch gar keine vollautomatisiertes auto was ich habe was das kann ist es kann automatisch bremsen es kann ich keine lenker für ungefähr 45 sekunden komplett loslassen das ist sozusagen das system da muss man wieder dran passen und wie ein tesla automatisch überholt kannst du dich also das kennen viele autos aber ich habe manchmal ein bisschen das gefühl naja das ist diese wie denkt man dass bananen software drei kunden deshalb auch bei autos natürlich schlecht wird das passiert naja also die die frage ist genau wie genau kriegt man das hin dass ein auto sich autonom bewegen kann und es gibt verschiedene ab rogers dass eine rein regelbasierter abrutscht dass man wirklich hart einprogrammiert wenn der spur erkennungs kamera dienst auf der linken seite erkennt dass du über den weißen streifen kommt es dann nach rechts haben so klar regeln einprogrammiert die dann auch für den menschen sehr leicht nachvollziehbar das will ich ganz gut sagen es hat halt ober gemacht und dann parkt über eine durchgezogene linie rechts ein auto ja und er ist dann ist das oder oder google hat es gemacht und dann ist das google auto da zwei tage lang stehen geblieben weil die regel war überfahren niemals eine weiße linie ja sogar juristen könnten auch so denken sagen okay rechts parkt ein auto dazwischen ist nicht mehr genügend platz da haben wir eine weiße linie die regeln außerdem erfahren die weiße linie ist ja einfach zwei tage da steht jeder mensch und da kommt vielleicht langsam in diesem bereich der auch seine spezialität ist nämlich künstliche intelligenz wie kriegen wir das hin dass ein computer der ja grundsätzlich regelbasiert ist irgendwann mal künstlich intelligente und regeln bricht also das ist fast schon eine frage an dich wieder zurück an die juristische abteilung weil ich glaube da muss man die regeln tatsächlich es gibt hier noch passen dann beispiel so diesen scherz irgendwo ich weiß nicht ob das wirklich so passiert ist aber da hat jemand um sie schon zu einem hohen teil automatisiert des autonomen auto einfach weißen kreis rum gepinselt war das auto gefangen kann nicht mehr weg das hat eben genau diese regel einprogrammiert das ist gleich hier genau über die weiße linie fahren aber die die frage also die würde ich dir gerne auch gleich noch mal stellen ist ja wenn sich das auto wirklich immer an alle regeln halten muss man ganz ehrlich im echten straßenverkehr es hält sich nicht immer jeder an alle regel da ist die ampel gerade dunkelgelb und hinten kommt einer schnell an da gibt es noch schnell gas dass du über kommst obwohl du eigentlich bremsen sollte und ich persönlich glaube da muss man sich echt überlegen ob wir die straßenverkehrsordnung anpassen für autonome ausschuss dass man so was macht wie wenn du länger als zehn minuten vor der durchgestrichenen linie stehst dann hast du unter bestimmten bedingungen ganz langsam drüberfahren oder irgendwie sowas eine frage ob sie nicht ein millionen regeln geben müsste dann wird das ist ja unvorhersehbar das ist ja menschliche intuition aber das können wir in dem video drehen was erklären was er heute auf dem kanal gezeigt wird da geht es nämlich um die rechtlichen themen lasst uns hier noch mal ein bisschen auf die technischen aspekte kommen nämlich der künstlichen intelligenz die in dieser autos gepackt wird gehört ist im vorgespräch schon mal gesagt naja künstliche intelligenz und das meine ich übrigens auch ist ein großes wort überall sagen alle ki und artificial intelligence sind computer wirklich intelligent rasiert das nur clever programmierte algorithmen also ich persönlich bespreche ich nie von künstlicher intelligenz ich sage meistens machine learning das finde ich trifft es ein kleines bisschen besser weil wenn man anfängt über intelligenz zu diskutieren was ist mit ncl ist personal intelligentes wesen wie intelligent wahrscheinlich wenn die meisten sich eigentlich seinen menschen sind intelligente wesen aber auch da gibt es abstufungen und ich hatte ja gerade schon beschrieben es gibt also zum beispiel einen regelbasierten der proton auto zu programmieren selbst wenn das auto der komplett krasse gegenentwurf ist ein rein lernen des auto wie beispielsweise die kollegen in cambridge bei der firma wave programmieren die die sagen wir wollen die den steuerungs algorithmus komplett sich selbst lernen lassen und fragen natürlich spannend wie trainiert man so was sie macht man sowas die haben top leute eingekauft aus der computerspiele industrie also leute die so gti und so weiter die simulation programmiert haben um eine virtuelle welt zu bauen die so realistisch ist wie möglich wo ein virtuelles auto ganz ganz viele fehler machen kann hunderttausendmal unfälle bauen kann wie immer wieder daraus lernt und dann ist da sich die spanne frage wie kann man jetzt diese adaption machen auf die echte welt domain station wäre das wort dann womit ich mich ein bisschen befasst deshalb habe ich mit denen überhaupt mal kontakt gehabt und das ist natürlich eine sehr spannende frage und das wäre jetzt also der der krasse gegenentwurf dass ein einen algorithmus sich komplett selbst trainiert aber am ende des tages man gibt als mensch als programmierer ja immer irgendwelche rahmenbedingungen formen glaubst du dass du dich selbst fahrende autos mehr oder weniger unfälle geben wird als jetzt definitiv weniger also damit kann sie hat das mal ausgerechnet dass 90 prozent aller unfälle aller tödlichen unfälle menschliche menschliche fehler als ursache haben will ich muss nur genau nach gucken aber ich es gibt so zu statistiken wo wirklich rauskommt also ganz klar menschliche fehler menschliches versagen ist nummer 1 in sachen verkehrsunfällen und das kann man natürlich dann ausschalten klar jetzt im moment hört man immer wieder dass tesla auto ist gegen irgendjemanden gefahren oder das uba eine radfahrerin umgefahren und weiter das natürlich auch ein bisschen so funktionieren medien ja das ist mal was neues das wird dann hoch gepusht und es wird auch noch eine ganze zeit lang in viele unfälle geben weil diese dinge die müssen ja erst ein bisschen was lernen die müssen erst fahren lernen so zu sagen aber der witz ist dass man hoffentlich bald einen punkt kommt so wie du gerade beschrieben hast dass die vielen einzel erfahrungen zusammengefasst werden können und allen zu gute kommen und dass er ein system das vergisst dann auch nichts mehr sondern dass das kann theoretisch nur schlauer werden und so sachen wie jetzt irgendwie trunkenheit am steuer oder handy geguckt oder sowas das gibt's ja dann nicht mehr weil man da schon viel besser abfangen kann wenn wir selbst haben der autos reden müssen wir auch über das klassische dilemma reden da ist eine kindergartengruppe und das auto hat mir die chance ein gleichfalls in die kindergartengruppe rein oder ich rette mich selbst wie löst man das dilemma aus software programmiert technischer sicht was will man da machen juristisch habe ich dazu etwas zu sagen klären wir auf einem kanal aber was kann dann entwickler machen der ist ja erstmal sagte okay ich rette immer das leben des jährigen der in dem auto sitzt das soll übrigens nicht so sein hat schon die ethikkommission gesagt sage ich gleich noch mal was ausführlich auf deinem channel zu sein der dem auto sitzt und die mobilitäts gefahr darstellt sondern eher derjenige sein wir den kürzeren zieht das könntet ihr entwickler ja sogar ein programmieren das wäre ja kein problem aber gibt's das schon was wird da schon darüber nachgedacht wie man das dilemma lösen könnte also ich glaube man man setzt gerade bei diesem dilemma selbst an also gab es ein spannendes experiment die haben den mtv heißt sie muss chris nachlesen die m morrell maschinenprogramm ja ja das ist so eine art online tool wo genau solche situation dargestellt wenn also was er sich auto rast auf die amazon könnte aber ausweichen auf fünf welten so genau so was wie wo soll es denn jetzt hinstellen da haben also leute gefragt umfrage style wie würdest du jetzt entscheiden was wäre für mich moralisch jetzt das die richtige entscheidung und die haben das in zig tausend verschiedenen sprachen 80.000 verschiedenen ländern und haben glaube ich nach zwei jahren so um die 40 millionen antworten auf die auf solche szenarien bekommen die leute wahrscheinlich auch mehrfach für verschiedene szenarien abgestimmt aber bottom line war es gibt keinen konsens ok also verschiedene leute verschiedene länder haben unterschiedliche moralfragen uhr links wer hat dafür abgestimmte welpen zu retten also das ist wurde noch ein bisschen sparen das weist gern plakativ aber er hat dann beispielsweise auch so du weißt da ist nämlich einer der ein verbrechen begangen und der andere hat eine total reinen social score den strafzettel bauherren fährt man dann eher den verbrecher also das wird auf einmal ganz schön groggy und heike diese fragen wären natürlich technisch schon irgendwann möglich also in china gibt es ja die gesichtserkennung wo dann der gleich der social score ausgerechnet wird und wenn jemand mal über die rote ampel gegangen ist kann nachher der sohn nicht mehr auf die uni gehen weil er einen punkt abgezogen bekommt also was also das ist jetzt nicht ganz unrealistisch und wie gesagt wir müssen uns als menschen erstmal eigentlich überlegen was ist denn unsere moralvorstellung bevor wir anfangen die maschine dort zu trainieren und man muss auch mal ganz ehrlich sagen diese dass dieses so genannte trolley problem das ist ja sehr sehr unrealistisch also das wirklich mein auto so zu diese schwarz-weiß entscheidung treffen muss ist unrealistisch es kann man immer konstruieren klasse und fallen aber diese entscheidung ich muss den fahrer retten oder und sie irgendwohin die wird es immer geben ja das stimmt ja aber also man man was ich gehört habe ich mich mit einigen leuten schon genau dieses problem unterhalten weil es immer wieder kommt und da auch viele viele doch dem challenge in uns als forscher daher ich wie gesagt bin jetzt kein ki automobilforscher sondern wir medizintechnik wo ich jetzt gerade arbeite aber dann ist mir wieder damit konfrontiert und sollte sich gedanken dazu machen aber ich höre immer wieder konsens ist eigentlich eher zu sagen lasst uns mal auf einem anderen level anfangen und erstmal die manöver die viel häufiger vorkommen also dass er sich in der autobahn überholen die richtig sicher machen bevor man sich auf solche viel unrealistisch ihren szenarien konzentriert und im idealfall kommt das eben einfach nicht zu seiner situation aber wie wie das dann programmiert werden sollte wenn das ist ja immer auch ein bisschen der zufall spielt natürlich dann auch irgendwann große rolle ich meine wenn das auto zum beispiel ausrechnen kann die überlebens chance für variante eins für alle beteiligten ist ein ganz bisschen höher dann müsste das ja eigentlich diese variante wählen auch wenn das dann wiederum bedeutet dass die überlebenschance für den insassen etwas geringer ist als wenn das einfach gleich komplett woanders wir auch dazu musste sich eine ethikkommission auseinandersetzen ja mal aufwiegen kann die anzahl der opfer sagte ich dann auch gleich noch was viele das ist ja gar nicht allerdings schauen wir mal ein bisschen in die zukunft werden wir was für einen zeitraum nicht ob wir das werden bin ich fast von überzeugt aber etwas für einen zeitraum werden wir keine führerscheine mehr brauchen und kann sich mein elfjähriger sohn schon ins auto setzen zur schule chauffieren lassen weil er sich eventuell beim smartphone irgendein selbst fahren das auto holt der setzt sich der rheinenser gibt es ziel ein das auto fährt in dahin was glaubst du wie lange wird das als technologischer sicht noch dauern bis wir soweit sind das ist echt eine sehr sehr schwere frage dann klar die unternehmen lassen sich ja auch nicht so ganz in die karten gucken ja so gerade in deutschland man eher das gefühl hier lieben großen autokonzerne ihr werdet gerade total abgehängt von kalifornien von asien usw ganz so schlimm es ist glaube ich nicht aber immer noch ganz gute auto sie doch noch gute autos das stimmt aber wer jetzt gerade beim thema e mobilität und selbstfahrende autos hat man manchmal ein bisschen das gefühl die sind total hinten dran das weiß ich natürlich nicht das kann genauso sein dass die einfach sagen hey wir testen erst mal ganz ganz geheim im stillen kämmerlein und in zwei jahren lassen wir dann die katze aus dem sack und dann prüft aufkommen die große überraschung keiner hat damit gerechnet und ich möchte natürlich auch niemanden diskreditieren ja nicht verklagen mit uns muss ich dir doch mal anklopfen meine hoffnung ist es dass die deutschen automobilhersteller und die deutschen zulieferer die deutschen start-ups hier vielleicht doch ein bisschen weiter sind als man so allgemein im internationalen vergleich mit bekommt und deshalb weil eben da viel mit geheimhaltung gespielt wird es ist nicht leicht abzuschätzen wie weit ist denn nun der stand der technik tatsächlich heute und es ist ja ich kann ich kann es keine jahreszahl an sagen aber ich sage mal man muss ja auch die ganze infrastruktur ein bisschen ein bisschen anpassen aber 10 90 jahre 20 jahre es kann schon sein ich denke was wahrscheinlich nicht hinkriegen ist dass jede straße mit mit irgendwelchen funk chips ausgestattet ist so dass die autos dann viel besser auf diesen straßen navigieren können ich denke ein selbst wenn das auto muss so robust sein das ist auch irgendwo in der wüste oder was er sich gelöst ist schlechtes beispiel aber immer in der pampa interpol teufel noch fahren kann ohne irgendwelche ein support auch ohne andere autos die signale senden das muss komplett auf sich allein gestellt fahren können und bis das wirklich ganz robust funktioniert also es da gibt es so viele störeinflüsse was wir jetzt aber schon klären auf dem kanal von philipp breaking lab ist die frage wie rechtlich die ganze thematik von selbst hand autos zu behandelt ist also wie ist dieses dilemma was wir vorhin aufgedeckt haben soll ich jetzt eine alte frau oder ein kind überfahren zu behandeln wer haftet eigentlich für schäden das alles seht ihr jetzt auf philips kanal hier unten ist das ganze noch mal verlinkt ich danke dir recht hat sich das indizien dass man so ausführlich erklärt hast wie weit wir technisch gesehen beim autonomen fahren sind damit recht hat sich fürs zuschauen wir sehen uns hier morgen auf diesem kanal schon wieder schaut jetzt mit philipp vorbei tschüss und bis dahin
so quiet so peaceful no one is breathing behind my back this is my natural habitat you want to hear the tone of the machines warning going up and down it's like a symphony I call the penis haves my babies that's actually so they can work in a proper way I kept me alive with the maintenance okay so far so good my name is Jo Martinez I'm app instead of mechanic for the gutter ball I was racing born in Brooklyn this is what I'll be doing for 25 years and we work in the pinsetter my difference that I have with other mechanics is my passion for it I mean I love what I do with the machines I love coming in and working in the pinsetters the machines are all fingers between the 40s and the 50s I think they would build I mean they have impressed with this machine whoever invented machines were magnificent like there you know how like updater stuff is old-fashioned stuff data keeping here I'm working they in the air with them so I just wanna make sure that when accent to work she walk properly to go up and down I call the pins helps my babies it's like a human being like they have a broken ankle something like there we can fix it I know it could be the doctor yes fix it trying to cure them like I say before those are my babies wanting to look clean clean and to me like they have in the shower nice and clean it's a funny cuz sometimes my wife gets in my case when I a dirty the shower it's no big deal she mentions dirty all the time people don't see the mechanics the second I know the war they don't see what goes they don't see how he looks in the back instead of take a beating the time we open to the time we close the princess like four teams running for hours and outs they are not only time there are relaxes won't close that's when I can see that what is slipping I kept me alive for like I'm saying we're keeping them with a maintenance that's what I do where the main is in the fence that I got a fixed line seven he they have an issue with the two are the two pins falling to the 7 pin bucket maybe the table has a malfunction that is sending two pins to the 7 pin bucket or the paint bucket is not or the dick is not dropping down the pin up in there back up so it could be here when the dishes could be in the air these machines once you keep the maintenance on on top of it I mean they last forever all right I think I'm getting ready for four rings seven safety first safety is the more you can get hurt or you can get killed see my metal finger I was cleaning up the cross conveyor belt in the machine I was wearing gloves in my club scam stuck and with pulley and just swung the pulley and just kept on top of the finger right away one point cut one straight cut – straight cut I have a mechanic that who got hurt he crushed his arm he was a mechanic who got killed in Texas I think it was he got killed somebody turned the machine on him he was inside them he can come up on his question so like it's hard yeah I just got caught I didn't know I I guess I was closing my knife and just cut me a little bit there but not biggie everyday thing it is killing jammed up frustrations is they come on yes they are there this is the thing you know oh is this that I get so frustrated yes these days that I can get the job done because my frustration takes over me one piece we have invented machines there was like a tiny short guy doing it I think it's so hard this is not mature heavy people nowadays a new generation they just want to get things done you want to get their hands dirty that on the one day I sit on the computer I mean most people were eyelid yet for that but not me I don't be honest where you are how can fix whatever you needs to be done I don't mind I'll let you call claw mean toilet actually six my goal is just once I run I get replace won't leave for someone you willing to do the job or capable to do the job with their new generation I'm not a hundred percent that went to the way the work that we do is it's not easy I am done a mechanic working in this place I mean I've been working in right now running two places for myself so if anyone out there likes the job they can be a hundred percent successful what they doing and loving it because if I didn't like my job I think I won't be I won't have a job what we're doing something different like I like what I see I like or discover the issue when the bonuses coming in a seed are the smiley now and they thrown spice and the Pistons going up and down this simple feeling because I think my chap is doing I'm doing the the right thing for the bolus and they have him fallen I mean my main goal is to have their customers be happy this machine is we're now going nowhere that would be here to the end when to the shut down this place will be here
it's been a long time since I filmed outside or in my car though according to some people I won't have to be sitting here for long which reminds me I recently picked up a large British audience because of a few videos I made so let me uh this should make them feel a little more at home and is oddly appropriate since this is what many people think that a driver's seat of a car might look like soon no steering wheel just a HUD it's pronounced HUD heads-up display not hood and I won't have to do anything more than just sit here and sleep or sing really we don't have an embarrassing shot of me singing but there are many problems and challenges that driverless cars must overcome first when artificial intelligence first started the designers thought to themselves hmm what's the most difficult thing we can get a computer to do what answer did they come up with chess and checkers and go board games but not just any board games these are games for super nerds if they can beat super nerds they must be pretty smart turns out all these games may be hard for you they're really easy for a computer like laughably easy deep blue beat the best human chess master in 1997 that was before most of you had internet and if you were lucky enough to have internet it was dial-up and you hoarded those AOL CDs with thousands of hours the game checkers was officially declared dead in 2007 because the computer had memorized every possible game situation all five times 10 to the 20 positions in 2015 chess was likewise salton in 2016 a computer beat the second best international go player board games are easy you input some rules maybe let it watch a few thousand games and that's it it doesn't require any motor functions or sensory input so what people didn't see coming was how difficult it is to get a computer to see seeing requires much more than just photon receptors that's why you have an entire lobe or about 20% of your brain dedicated to it colors are relatively simple and not all that difficult for a computer to figure out so they won't be the focus of this video but I'm I'm building to it shapes are also relatively easy but edge detection is not so when a computer see like this it sees a bunch of colors and shapes but it has no idea what any of it means and can't tell the objects from the background is this an object is this an object is this all one object with multiple colors but you can see it easily and without even having to think about it because one of the primary purposes of area v1 of your brain also known as ba 17 is edge detection it's one of the first things that your brain does with visual information this problem has been mostly figured out but I'll get to how in a bit a problem that will never be solved though is how to teach a computer to see depth it has no idea what is closer this or this again you can with little to no effort when you see an optical illusion like this you can tell that something isn't right but a computer has no idea first let's go through the monocular cues that is one eye for depth perception when you look at this picture you see the horizon your brain uses this as a major clue the closer it is to the horizon the further away it usually is and the higher up or down the closer to you it is we also look for parallel lines which converge the farther away they are also the further away you look the more atmospheric haze there is which makes things have less contrast and appear more blue than they should but a more obvious monocular cue is relative size which is how big or small something is compared to something that should be similar like in this illusion they're all the same size by the way but because of their positions they look hilariously miss proportioned or my hands one of them is bigger than the other not because I'm a freak but because one is closer to the camera another obvious clue is occlusion since my right hand is obscuring my left hand it must be closer which was the case with those cars but that's just how you do it with one eye you don't actually see this because you have two eyes giving you by ocular vision you see this the focus of your two eyes gives you depth perception because of a fun little bit of math that your eyes and brain calculate without your conscious awareness the angle of your eyes is calculated when you're looking here and when you're looking here and your brain essentially does triangulation to figure out that this point is further away than this point granted you don't actually see this blurry mess unless you take off your glasses during a 3d movie but in real life your brain cleans up that image a lot while you may think you see in 3d you actually only see in 2d your brain creates a 3d space using that 2d information and we're not even going to get into the motion cues because we've already complicated things enough and I mean come on maybe that'll be another video all of these are things that your brain does without even thinking about it many of these monocular cues can be programmed into a computer but not all of them and just like how your brain can be fooled by various illusions so can a computer so a computer cannot only rely on vision to determine depth or distance it needs some sort of outside help many of you might have jumped to the idea of GPS or satellite imagery unfortunately GPS doesn't provide you with any images and it doesn't even tell you where you are it tells you where it is and your computer makes its best guess on your location which is usually only accurate with NS euphy which doesn't really work when you're talking about piloting a one Tong hunk of metal 60 miles an hour satellite imagery also doesn't work because it isn't live which is pretty much what you need when navigating a busy street and even if you somehow manage to fix that problem you'll never overcome weather buildings and trees and stuff so a driverless car needs to use localized vision along with something else to perceive distance local to the car and we've actually had the solution to this longer than we've had satellites echo location such as sonar or radar basically it sends out a signal and based on how long it takes to reflect off of the object in return it can figure out how far away it is the problem is that this information is limited and not quite how you see it in the movies for an environment like this radar will return an image like this just like with visual information it's 2-dimensional and will only tell you how far something is from the transceiver at the level of the transceiver so if it's on the roof of your car that's not very useful when trying to figure out how far away someone's bumper is so have one on the bumper obviously that's on top of the fact that it only tells you how far away something is in that moment it doesn't tell you what direction is traveling or how fast it's traveling which is made even more complicated when you add in the fact that you are likewise moving the technology to do that does exist and has been in use for C and air travel for decades but those are long range with far fewer vehicles and little environmental obstructions so okay all of these are challenges that have been or can be solved so let's talk about some issues with vision that have not yet been solved what is this right it's a bicycle what is this it's it's still a bicycle come on okay but what is this it's still a bicycle this isn't rocket science it's pretty easy yeah for you for a computer it's infinitely difficult object recognition is by far the hardest thing to get a computer to do especially when you consider that 3d objects look completely different in a 2d image from different angles even in perfect conditions you may remember this video from a few years ago of a robot navigating around the world and interacting with objects you probably mostly remember it because of the jerk with the hockey stick it's all pretty impressive as long as you aren't aware of the difficulties of getting a computer to see you know what a cognitive psychologist sees when they watch that video a robot interacting with a bunch of QR codes those QR codes tell their all about what the object is its distance and its orientation whether it's a box or a door if they want the robot to interact with it there are QR codes stamped all over it sorry for ruining the magic what am I talking about computers are we good at recognizing things but how Facebook knows I'm in all those pictures or all those snapchat filters yeah I mean they're good at faces I'll give you that there's a pretty standard pattern for those I mean your brain is wired to think this is a face it's not it's a chair and it's not really like recognizing faces is all that useful for driverless cars computers are getting better at recognizing objects though and you're helping whether you're playing Google quick-draw or doing one of those new captured images where you select all the squares with a stop sign you're teaching computers had a seat you're helping our future machine overlords recognize objects however even with all of this learning it still has to match what it sees with a previously learned template it's not like you able to figure out what new objects are and what they mean on the fly for example say you come across this sign it might only take you a second or two to skim over it and realize that it doesn't apply to you and continue driving but a computer the first thing it will recognize is the shape it sure looks like a stop sign it's red and white just like a stop sign it has a little more to it than a stop sign but just to be sure I better stop in the middle of this street that could cause an issue or perhaps this situation clearly that's a stop sign but it's covered with a trash bag whatever Internet traffic uplink it's using says that there should be a stop sign here and there it is but it's it's partially covered with a trash bag again you can look at this situation and quickly figure it out you're supposed to follow the temporary green light and ignore the stop sign but a computer especially one that's never encountered this before won't be able to react as easily say the temporary light wasn't there is a trash bag in some duct tape all it takes to fool a self-driving car into just flying through the intersection if so you're going to see a lot more teenage pranks and YouTube videos like this show up and what about this detour sign your GPS says that you should go straight you might know that you can safely go straight but a computer sees this sign saying it must go right maybe there's an obstruction ahead these are all things that you can quickly figure out but a computer has to obey a set of rules and when presented with something outside of its rules that it may not know how to react which is why I'm not very impressed when people bring up Google's self-driving car that drove up and down the highway on its own a few years ago driving on a highway is easy all you have to do is stay between the lines there are very few dynamic situations very few unique situations and relatively few challenges it's so easy a monkey could do it actually it's so easy a dog could do it this isn't a prank this isn't a joke this is an actual dog driving a car there's an entire channel dedicated to showing various dogs learning how to drive cars it's not that hard obviously they're on a track by themselves heavily supervised but they are staying in the lines it's not that hard and it's not that impressive highway driving is so easy you regularly completely zone out and stop paying attention and things usually turn out ok not like in a city where you're on constant guard and see dynamic and unique situations all the time which brings us to the last major hurdle that driverless cars must face once you're able to get it to see and understand what it sees you then have to tell it what to do with that information let's say you're driving along and come across this situation again you as a human can quickly figure out the context of this situation and probably wouldn't stop a computer on the other hand wouldn't know that this person was just about to turn right and get into the driver's side door according to this person's current trajectory if the car doesn't stop now it's going to hit them does it assume that the person is fully aware and is acting safely or does it stop possibly causing an axe with the car behind it that's a simple situation a very simple situation let's say that the car is driving along on a two-lane road and it realizes that its brakes are out I don't know maybe a line that severed or a wire shorted out it doesn't matter it's rare but it's not unheard of coming towards the car are two motorcyclists who are dangerously riding side by side in both lanes your car must now choose who to hit you as a human can freeze up and yell jesus take the wheel and let physics decide who lives and dies a computer on the other hand camps not making a decision is a decision to do nothing which means that the car will hit one or both of them which means that the car decided to hit one or both of them there is no scenario where a computer can claim to have been so flustered it couldn't make a decision it could decide to follow the law and strike the person who is travelling in the incorrect lane that's one way to do it or we can make the situation even more interesting by pointing out that one rider is wearing a helmet and all of their protective clothing while the other is simply wearing a t-shirt and shorts your car may decide that this person is more likely to survive a collision although very slimly more likely and therefore steer the car into that person which would paradoxically make it less safe to be wearing a helmet or we could point out this tree to the side it could avoid hitting both riders and instead I like to crash itself into the tree just injuring you you likely survive while the riders probably wouldn't but who is the car supposed to protect you the owner and operator or some bonehead Harley riders who weren't obeying the law some might say that as the owner the car's main directive should be to protect you and your passengers while others might say that it should protect as many lives as possible but given the choice if there were cars on the market that safeguarded all lives or cars on the market that just protected you and your passengers you might be more inclined to buy the one that places you and your family above others let's pose another situation say you're at an intersection and your car wants to make a right turn but there's a line of school children currently crossing the street all holding hands single-file so your patiently waiting but another car coming down the road has hit a patch of ice or has its brakes and steering go out whatever it doesn't matter the point is that the car cannot stop and no longer has control it's also a self-driving car and using magic is alerting all other cars in the area about its situation if your car is designed to only protect you it'll probably sit tight and force you to watch something so horrifying you'll never see the end of the therapy bills if your car is designed to protect as many lives as possible it might pull forward into the intersection stopping the car from plowing through all those kids but you'll be t-boned and your possibility of walking away from this accident is pretty low these are situations that driverless cars will be forced to make decisions on and they're incredibly tough decisions not to mention the fact that I've only given you a handful of the literal infinite amount of possible situations I certainly don't want to be the one writing moral and ethical codes for driverless cars but someone has to especially if we ever went intersections would look like this where there are no traffic lights all the cars are driverless and are simply communicating with each other with hyper efficiency and it's absolutely impossible first of all it requires that every single car on the road be self-driving if there's even one manually driven car game over which then also means that your car must be self-driving at all times if you're able to manually switch it on and off an intersection like that will never work which means that Old Man River out on his dirt road would have to be using a self-driving car we can get around this situation by saying that only on certain roads autopilot must be enabled fine but let's say you're on one of these autopilot only roads in you're late for work when this happens your HUD tells you that an emergency is occurring on the road so all travel is currently halted never mind how furious you'll be over the fact that the government can just seize control of your car your lane so you flip the manual override and decide to proceed anyway and congratulations you just caused the collision don't act like this situation is impossible how many people do you know who just drove around a closed highway sign because the weather was bad if people can break the law in order to save themselves some time they will but let's go back to this intersection and assume that all cars will always be self-driving with no possible manual override this intersection is a disaster waiting to happen let's completely set aside the idea that anyone would ever go to this intersection with malicious intent even though those people have always and will always exist and we'll assume that all of these cars are completely unhackable again we're assuming perfect conditions imagine a tree branch falls in this intersection or a tire blows out or a trucks unsecured cargo falls off you're looking at a several car pileup even with AI they can respond instantly also having traffic flow like this renders the intersection completely useless the pedestrians and bicyclists there's an easy solution to this of course a four-way footbridge which likewise dramatically increases the likelihood of something or someone falling into the intersection accidentally or not but again in order to achieve this perfect flow of traffic everyone needs to have a driverless car cars aren't like phones where people get a new one every year or two cars last a long time like 15 to 20 years most people don't go out and get a new one until their current one breaks beyond repair so even if by some miracle all technological and ethical hurdles are overcome in the next 10 years which is extremely generous they totally won't be and they stopped selling manually driven cars the same day without government intervention it would still take 15 to 20 years to phase out all of the manually driven cars excluding antiques of course because you're never going to take those away from people on the topic of government intervention we also have several legal issues that need to be ironed out just to throw a few out there who's at fault when a car decides to hit someone when you're the only person riding in a self-driving car are you allowed to be on your phone what about sleeping or drunk if you're required to be awake and attentive the entire time doesn't that kind of ruin the point of it being self-driving self-driving cars will happen don't get me wrong they are coming but if you think they're going to take over the roads in the next 10 20 or even 30 years hopefully now you know better ah why you watching me stand with the end me I've got a remedy oh why are you watching me dance with the enemy here is my remedy Oh
Translator: Jon Dujaka Reviewer: Helena Bedalli Kur isha i vogël, I adhuroja makinat. Kur mbusha 18, E humba shokun tim të ngushtë në një aksident rrugor. Kështu. Pastaj vendosa t'ia dedikoj jeten time në shpëtimin e një milion njerëzve çdo vit. Nuk e kam arritur këtë gjë, kështuqë ky është vetëm një raport mbi progresin, por jam këtu t'iu tregoj pak për makinat vetë-vozitëse. E pashë konceptin në fillim në Sfidën e Madhe DARPA ku qeveria e Sh.B.A e lëshoi një shpërblim për një makinë vetë-vozitëse që mund të navigonte në shkretëtirë. Edhe pse aty ishin njëqind skuadra, ato makina nuk shkuan askund. Kështu që ne në Stanford vendosëm që të ndërtonim një makinë vetë-vozitëse ndryshe. Ne ndërtuam trupin dhe programin. Ne e bëmë që të mësonte nga ne, dhe e lëshuam të lirë në shkretëtirë. Dhe a paimagjinueshmja ndodhi: u bë makina e parë që ishte kthyer ndonjëherë nga një Sfidë e Madhe DARPA — duke i fituar Stanford-it 2 milion dollarë. Por ende nuk kishte shpëtuar asnjë jetë. Prej asaj, puna jonë u fokusua në ndërtimin e makinave që mund të vozisin kudo ku vetëm — çdo rrugë në Kaliforni. Ne kemi vozitur 225,000 kilometra. Makinat tona kanë sensor me anë të së cilëve mund të shikojnë në mënyrë magjike çdo gjë për rreth tyre dhe të vendosin në çdo aspekt të vozitjes. Është mekanizmi perfekt i vozitjes. Kemi vozitur në qytete, si në San Francisco këtu. Kemi vozitur nga San Francisco në Los Angeles në Autostradën 1. Kemi hasur në vrapues autostrada të rënduara nga trafiku, kabina për pagesa, dhe e gjitha kjo është pa një njeri në timon; makina vozit vet. Në fakt, përderisa vozitëm 225,000 kilometra, njerëzit nuk e vërejtën. Rrugë malore, ditë dhe natë, si dhe rrugën zigzage Lombard në San Francisco. (Të qeshura) Ndonjëherë makinat tona çmenden, dhe bëjnë akrobacione të vogla. (Video) Njeri: Oh Zoti i Madh Çfarë? Njeriu i dytë: Po vozitë vetë. Sebastian Thrun: Unë nuk mund ta ringjall shokun tim Harold, por unë mund të bëj diçka për të gjithë njerëzit që kanë vdekur. A e dini se aksidentet trafikore janë shkaku numër një për vdekjen e të rinjve ? Dhe a e kuptoni se gati të gjitha këto janë pasoje e gabimeve njerëzore e jo gabimeve mekanike, prandaj mund të parandalohen nga makinat? A e kuptoni se ne mund të ndryshojmë kapacitetin e aurostradave dy ose tre herë nëse ne nuk do të mbështetëshim në precizitetin e njeriut për të qëndruar në korsi — përmirësimin e pozicionit të trupit dhe prandaj të vozisim pak më afër së bashku në korsi pak më të ngushta, dhe ti largohemi bllokimit të trafikut në autostrada ? A e kupton se ti, përdorues i TED-it, shpenzon një mesatare prej 52 minutave në ditë në trafik, duke e shpenzuar kohën tënde në udhëtimin tënd të përditshëm? Ti mund ta rifitosh këtë kohë. Kjo është katër miliard orë të shpenzuara vetëm në këtë shtet ( Kaliforni ). Dhe është 9 miliard litra benzinë të shpenzuara. Un mendoj se është një vizion këtu, një teknologji e re, dhe po shpresoj se do të vijë një kohë kur gjeneratat pasardhëse do shikojnë pas dhe do të thonë se sa qesharake ishte që njerëzit po i vozisnin makinat. Faleminderit. (Duartrokitje)
Smart cities has been bubbling along for a number of years now Cars, transportation, mobility, is fundamental to the smart city. We've got cars driving around the road network gathering loads of data. What are we doing with that data? Nothing. So Streamr can come along and unlock the value of that car data and also via its Network, help cars to talk to other cars to talk to roadside units to talk to the infrastructure that's running the road network. And then what were also doing is demonstrating the value of a data economy and how a data economy can actually work on the road network. So the first thing is we need a real electric vehicle. And the way we use it is we have accessed the CAN bus which is the central network of the car to be able to access the complete data which the car is producing and since Bosch has real real deep knowledge of all the systems and all the components in the car we really can make sense out of that data combining it to maybe new use cases in the future. So as you were driving around Zurich, the car has been generating data and it's the data you can see now. This is just raw stream and if you open now the Streamr canvas we can see the data in a more visual way so we can see charts for the speed, steering wheel angle, steering wheel angle velocity and also we can see our position here on the map. So cars are effectively computers on wheels, applications gathering lots of data. Streamr's part in all of that is the hub so it interconnect all this data whether it's an IOT device, whether it's a car, multiple cars, and also the infrastructure running the city. So imagine if he had all the cars driving around Zurich all connected and all talking to each other and actually getting all of that intelligence out. What you can then do is actually make people move around the city more effectively. So what we are going to show with this app, it's that any car, even an older car can join the Network and benefit from other drivers' data. On the app I can see that there's an obstacle on the road, which is generated based on the data from the car ahead of us. Now I can slow down and avoid it safely. This app it is a bit like wAze but everyone gets paid for their data. Even older cars can install this app on the tablet or on the smartphone. What really excites me about this app, is that it's unlocking the potential of the data that wasn't utilised until now and it also enables drivers to earn money for their data. I think at the moment we have really that challenging situation that we do not really have fair and open markets with data as it was planned in the beginning of the internet. What we see today is we have more and more monopolistic platforms I think we have the chance now to change that situation a little bit. We've had the web of data, data interconnecting. We've now got the Internet of Cars We can create something very collaborative, very open where all sorts of car companies could connect, and all sorts of organisations. But the point is, it's collaborative and it's an open ecosystem underpinned with a flow of real-time data, very fast with very fast decisions. So that's what I'm excited about because we're now actually taking the web, the web of data, to the next to the next stage and bringing cars which are amazing devices, into the mix.